PSY103 Study Notes for Final Exam

PSY103 Study Notes for Final Exam - PSY103 Study Notes for...

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PSY103 Study Notes for Final Exam Chapter 1: Psychology and Life - empiricist point of view: people begin life w/ their mind as a blank tablet; the mind acquires info through experience in the world - nativist point of view (Locke): people begin life w/ mental structure that provide constraints on how they experience the world % structuralism: study of structure of mind and behavior; all human mental experience can be understood as combo of simple elements or events % Gestalt psychology: psychological phenomena can be understood only when viewed as organized structure wholes not when broken down into primitive perceptual elements. % Functionalism: focuses on examination of mind and behavior functions in an organism’s interaction w/ the environment. % Perspectives % Psychodynamic: behavior explained in terms of past experience and motivational forces; actions stems from inherited instincts, unconscious biological drives, and attempts to resolve conflicts b/w personal needs and social requirements. % Behaviorist: observable behavior objectively recorded and relationships of observable behavior to environmental stimuli % Humanistic: emphasizes individual’s phenomenal world (human experience) and inherent capacity for making rational choice and developing to maximum potential. % Self-actualization: individual’s drive toward fullest development of his or her potential. % Cognitive: stresses human thought and processes of knowing (i.e. attending, thinking, remembering, expecting, problem solving, fantasizing, & consciousness) % Biological: approach to identify causes of behavior focusing on functioning of genes, the brain, the nervous and endocrine systems. % Evolutionary: stresses importance of behavioral and mental adaptiveness % Sociocultural: focuses on cross-cultural differences in the causes and consequences of behavior Chapter 2: Research Methods in Psychology % Steps in the Process of Conducting Research: 1. Initial observation or question 2. Form a hypothesis 3. Design the study 4. Analyze the data and draw conclusions 5. Report the findings 6. Consider open questions 7. Act on open questions % observer bias: distortion of evidence bcus of personal motives and expectations of the viewer % Dependent variable depends on value of independent variable % Confounding variable: another variable that changes participant’s behavior other than the stimulus % Placebo effect: change in participant’s behavior in absence of experimental manipulation; due to individual’s belief % Double-blind control: both experimental assistants and participants blind to which participants get which treatment % Correlation coefficient: degree of relationship b/w 2 variables (+1.0 through -1.0) % Reliability: consistency of data vs. Validity: accuracy of data Chapter 3: The Biological and Evolutionary Bases of Behavior % nature vs. nurture or heredity vs. environment % Genotype: genetic structure an organism inherits from parents % Phenotype: observable characteristics of an organism, resulting from the interaction b/w the organism’s genotype and its environment % Natural Selection Process: 1. Changes in environment 2. Competition for resources 3.
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