Biology Unit V Genetics Study sheet

Biology Unit V Genetics Study sheet - 1. Principle of...

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1. Principle of Dominance : dominant masks recessive; recessive remains hidden 2. Principle of Segregation : each gamete receives one set of genes 3. Principle of Independent Assortment : genes segregate according to chance. 4. Principle of Inheritance : individuals pass on information as individual traits eg. Gene: height; allele: tall/short. 5. Codon : three-base sequence in messenger RNA that causes the insertion of a particular amino acid into a protein, or termination of translation. 6. Locus : specific location of a particular gene on homologous chromosomes. 7. Gene : unit of heredity existing as alleles on the chromosomes; in diploid organisms, typically two alleles are inherited – one from each parent. 8. Dominant allele : allele that exerts its phenotypic effect in the heterozygote; it masks the expression of the recessive allele. 9. Recessive allele : its expression is masked by the dominant allele. 10. Allele : alternative form of a gene – alleles occur at the same locus on homologous chromosomes. 11. Chromosome : structure consisting of DNA complexed with proteins that transmits genetic information from the previous generation of cells and organisms to the next generation. 12. Homologous chromosome : member of a pair of chromosomes that are alike and come together in synapsis during prophase of the first meiotic division. 13. Autosome : any chromosome other than the sex-determining pair. 14. Gametes : haploid sex cells; i.e. egg and sperm. 15. Natural selection : mechanism of evolution caused by environmental selection of organisms most fit to reproduce; results in adaption to the environment. 16.
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This note was uploaded on 02/09/2010 for the course BIOL 101 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Spokane Falls Community College.

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Biology Unit V Genetics Study sheet - 1. Principle of...

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