CHE_106_Lecture10_2009

CHE_106_Lecture10_2009 - Chemistry 106 Lecture 10 Topics...

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Chemistry 106 Lecture 10 Topics: Acid-Base Reactions Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Chapter 4.3 –4.5
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Types of Chemical Reactions Most of the reactions we will study fall into one of the following categories –Precipitation Reactions Acid-Base Reactions –Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
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Acids and bases are some of the most important electrolytes. Acid-Base Reactions
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Acids and bases are very common in household items.
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The Arrhenius concept (~1884) defines acids as substances that produce hydrogen ions, H + , when dissolved in water . An example is nitric acid, HNO 3 , a molecular substance that dissolves in water Acid-Base Reactions to give H + and NO 3 - . ) aq ( NO ) aq ( H ) aq ( HNO 3 O H 3 2 - + + +
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The Arrhenius concept defines bases as substances that produce hydroxide ions, OH - , when dissolved in water . An example is sodium hydroxide, NaOH, an Acid-Base Reactions ionic substance that dissolves in water to give sodium ions and hydroxide ions. ) aq ( OH ) aq ( Na ) s ( NaOH O H 2 - + + +
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The molecular substance ammonia, NH 3 , is a base in the Arrhenius view because it yields hydroxide ions when it reacts with water . Acid-Base Reactions ) aq ( OH ) aq ( NH ) l ( O H ) aq ( NH 4 2 3 - + + + + +
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The Brønsted - Lowry concept (~1923) of acids and bases involves the transfer of a proton (H + ) from the acid to the base. Acid-Base Reactions In this view, acid-base reactions are proton-transfer reactions.
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The Brønsted - Lowry concept defines an acid as the species (molecule or ion) that donates a proton (H + ) to another species in a proton-transfer reaction . Acid-Base Reactions A base is defined as the species (molecule or ion) that accepts the proton (H + ) in a proton-transfer reaction .
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The Brønsted-Lowry Concept ) aq ( OH ) aq ( NH ) l ( O H ) aq ( NH 4 2 3 - + + + + + In the reaction of ammonia with water, Acid-Base Reactions the H 2 O molecule is the acid because it donates a proton. The NH 3 molecule is a base , because it accepts a proton. H +
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The Brønsted-Lowry Concept ) aq ( O H ) aq ( NO ) l ( O H ) aq ( HNO + - + + The dissolution of nitric acid, HNO 3 , in water is also a proton-transfer reaction Acid-Base Reactions 3 3 2 3 where HNO 3 is an acid (proton donor) and H 2 O is a base (proton acceptor). H +
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The Brønsted-Lowry Concept ) aq ( O H ) l ( O H ) aq ( H + + + The H + (aq) ion associates itself with water to form H 3 O + (aq) . Acid-Base Reactions This proton transfer mechanism for the H + ion is called the hydroniumion . 3 2
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In summary, the Arrhenius concept and the Brønsted- Lowry concept are essentially the same in aqueous solution. – The Arrhenius concept acid: proton (H + ) donor Acid-Base Reactions base: hydroxide ion (OH - ) donor – The Brønsted-Lowry concept acid: proton (H + ) donor base: proton (H + ) acceptor
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Strong and Weak Acids and Bases – A strong acid is an acid that ionizes completely in water; it is a strong electrolyte.
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