9-4-09_macromolecules1A - Introduction to carbohydrates,...

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Introduction to carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids
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Announcements Second quiz will become available by noon today. Not due until next Friday at noon because of Labor Day weekend. Papers for your research summary will become available early next week. The research summary will be a 4-6 page double spaced summary of the significance and techniques used in the research. “How would I explain this paper to my grandmother?” More details to follow
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Electronegativity reflects the tendency of an atom to attract an electron More nuclear protons, more electronegative More distance of outer electrons from nucleus, less electronegative O, N, Cl, are very electronegative biomolecules (Why?)
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Covalent bonds are polar when one atom is more electronegative than the other (unequal sharing) Top: Covalent C-C bond, equal charge distribution between atoms. Middle: Covalent N-B bond, unequal distribution between atoms. Nitrogen is more electronegative Bottom: Ionic Li-F bond, in which F has has taken an electron from Li. Fluorine is much more electronegative. http://www.chemistry.mcmaster.ca/
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The most important polar molecule is water Oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen, so the hydrogen are effectively partially positively charged and the oxygen is partially negatively charged.
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Strength in numbers: Ionic and Hydrogen bonds In this example, ionic bonds between the phosphate backbone of the DNA and the amine of the protein are present . Also, hydrogen bonds are what hold the complementary DNA strands together. Why would H bonds be useful? Many H bonds that can easily be broken and reformed give great overall strength of DNA strands holding together yet flexibility to unzip them in specific locations with relatively little energy expenditure.
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If this were a bond, what kind of bond would it be? John Lennon and Ringo Starr – polar covalent a mosquito on you - ionic John Lennon and Paul McCartney – nonpolar covalent Conversations at a party tonight – hydrogen You can try to think of your own bond combos if it helps you to remember them.
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At the length scale of intracellular distances, chemical bonds are competing with thermal energy Thermal energy, given by k B *T is approximately 4.1 x 10
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This note was uploaded on 02/09/2010 for the course BIOL 230 taught by Professor Bartlett,e during the Fall '08 term at Purdue University-West Lafayette.

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9-4-09_macromolecules1A - Introduction to carbohydrates,...

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