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9-2-09_bonds_lectureA

9-2-09_bonds_lectureA - Peace is a daily a weekly a monthly...

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“Peace is a daily, a weekly, a monthly process, gradually changing opinions, slowly eroding old barriers, quietly building new structures .” – President John F. Kennedy
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Interesting link about viruses and the definitions of cells/life http://www.nature.com/news/2008/080806/full/454677a.html Describes a large “mamavirus” that can itself be infected and “sickened” with a small satellite virus nicknamed “Sputnik” The mamavirus is even slightly larger than the mimivirus. Together, these are the two largest viruses, so large that they can be seen with a light microscope (~ 200 nm). The structure of the mimivirus was determined here at Purdue in 2009 by Michael Rossmann’s lab.
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From: Molecular Biology of the Cell , Third Edition, Alberts et al Simple viral life cycle 1) Bind and gain entry into cell 2) Uncoat capsid (protein coat) and if applicable, membranes, around DNA 3) Use viral DNA to alter host DNA such that viral DNA is replicated and mRNA needed to make viral proteins is transcribed 4) The duplicated viral DNA and translated viral proteins exit
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Lytic vs. lysogenic viral cycles
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The HIV virus The protein coat allows it to bind to the host and determines host specificity (host range). When genetic alterations allow a virus to change its host specificity or range, that’s when there are serious concerns, because it could jump species.
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Progression of HIV viral load and CD4+ T cell depletion CD4+ T helper cells are immune cells that promote the immune response Mechanism of CD4+ death not well understood, but is mainly through apoptosis (programmed cell death) Thought that majority of CD4+ cells killed are uninfected “bystanders” whose cell death pathways become activated Alimonti et al. 2003
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Electronegativity --- Buried in Bonds: Better Living Through Biochemistry 1
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Four types of biochemicals and their distribution in cells
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The structures and reactivities of
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