11-2-09_chemnaturegeneB

11-2-09_chemnaturegeneB -...

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It is not the strongest of the species that  survives, nor the most intelligent that  survives. It is the one that is the most  adaptable to change.  Charles Darwin   Information is the resolution of uncertainty.  Claude Shannon  
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Announcements Your second written assignment will use the same  format as the first.  You must include at least 2 other  references besides the original article. It will be due Friday, December 4 (Note major shift in due  date). Quiz 7 will be made available soon but has not been yet.
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Now What? We have ATP and NADPH Light independent reaction Can make a carbohydrate out of CO 2
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Calvin-Benson Cycle Six molecules of CO 2  are  fixed by RuBP carboxylase  (or Rubisco) to a 5 carbon  compound, RuBP  Forms a 6 carbon unstable  intermediate Rubisco is the rate-limiting  step of photosynthesis, with  a turnover rate of only 3/s.  Constitutes ~1/2 of the  protein mass in plants and is  the most abundant protein on  Earth.
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Calvin Cycle Unstable 6 carbon intermediate splits  into two PGA (3-phosphoglycerate)  molecules The ATP from the light reaction is  used to phosphorylate PGA into 1,3  bis-phosphoglycerate (BPG)  All of this is taking place in the  chloroplast stroma
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Calvin Cycle The phosphorylated BPG uses the  NADPH formed from the light dependent  cycle BPG is reduced into glyceraldehyde 3- phosphate (GAP) Out of the 12 GAP molecules that have  been formed from the 12 PGA  molecules, 2 GAP molecules will go on  to make carbohydrates in one of 2 ways 1) GAP can be transported out into the  cytosol, where it will be converted to  glucose and sucrose 2) GAP can also be used to make starch  in the stroma of chloroplasts Starch is generated by reversing the  reactions of glycolysis to make glucose- 1 phosphate, which is added to the  starch granule
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Whole Calvin Cycle Start with RuBP CO2 and Rubisco are used to  convert RuBP into the six  carbon intermediate 6 carbon intermed. splits into  PGA Use ATP to phosphorylate BPG Use NADPH to reduce BPG  into GAP 2 GAP can go on to synthesize  sucrose/starch molecules 
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11-2-09_chemnaturegeneB -...

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