12-4-09_signaling_tyrkinasescrosstalkA

12-4-09_signaling_tyrkinasescrosstalkA - As a single...

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As a single footstep will not make a path on the earth, so a single thought will not make a pathway in the mind. To make a deep physical path, we walk again and again. To make a deep mental path, we must think over and over the kind of thoughts we wish to dominate our lives. Henry David Thoreau “We think in generalities, but we live in detail.” Alfred North Whitehead “Of course I'm crazy, but that doesn't mean I'm wrong.” Robert Anton Wilson
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Announcements Quiz 9 is due Wednesday 12/9, at noon Final is December 16, 8-10 AM in STEW 183 (Loeb) Final is cumulative, but 80% focused on material since exam 3 Review questions and guidelines to material to know from first three exams will be given out early next week
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Second messengers Activated by effector that has been activated by first messenger (ligand) or the transduction of the ligand binding, such as activation of a G-protein by a ligand-activated receptor. Examples include: cyclic AMP (cAMP) Ca++ Phosphoinositides, such as PIP2 Inositol trisphosphate (IP3) Diacylgycerol (DAG) Cyclic GMP (cGMP, mostly in vision) Nitric oxide
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Sensitization of the gill withdrawal reflex reveals three phases of memory Non-associative memory Light touch evokes a small withdrawal. A single shock will sensitize the gill withdrawal to a touch for about 1 hour 4 shock will sensitize the withdrawal for 1 day, and 4 sets of 4 shocks for 4 days will sensitize the withdrawal for weeks This gives 3 different time windows for sensitization that have distinct molecular mechanisms Kandel et al. 2001
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Steps in short-term sensitization in Aplysia Short term (hour): PKA directly phosphorylates K channels, leading to increased transmitter release Intermediate term (hours to 1 day). PKA activation of CREB ultimately results in ubiquitination of PKA Long-term (weeks). Multiple gene activation for addition of new synaptic release sites Kandel et al. 2001
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PKA anchoring proteins (AKAPs) ensure that PKA phosphorylates the proper substrates The PKA binding domain is shared between different AKAPs, but different AKAPs have specific binding sites for the receptors that they are coupled to, forming a signaling hub In this example, AKAPs associated with channels, mitochondria, nucleus, cytoskeleton
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Regulation of phosphorylation by kinases and phosphatases is at the heart of many signaling pathways
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This note was uploaded on 02/09/2010 for the course BIOL 230 taught by Professor Bartlett,e during the Fall '08 term at Purdue University-West Lafayette.

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12-4-09_signaling_tyrkinasescrosstalkA - As a single...

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