09.Terrestrial Plants - 1 What is a plant? Photosynthetic...

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1 1 What is a plant? • Photosynthetic • Multicellular, complex tissues and organs • Protection of embryos (“embryophytes”) • Indeterminate growth forming antenna-like systems • Growth from discrete meristems • Growth, movement, and transport are powered by turgor pressure 2 Are all plants photosynthetic? Are all photosynthetic organisms plants? a b 3 Plants are descended fromgreen algae (Charophytes) 4 What do terrestrial plants have in common with green algae? • The land plants are descended from the freshwater green algae – Cell structure, including the cellulose wall, and green chloroplasts (chlorophyll a and b plus carotenoids) – Food stored in plastids as starch – Life cycles with motile sperm and non-motile egg 5 Plants have three-diemsnional tissue called parenchyma tissue, which first appeared in green algae known as Charophytes 6 • Three-dimensional growth of parenchyma tissue allows plants to develop true organs, like stems and leaves, which have outer protective tissues and internal moist tissues
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2 7 What are the primary challenges for plants to move onto the land? • Early land plants had to cope primarily with problems of – water absorption – Water transport – Water conservation – Reproduction on land 8 Plants consist of stems, leaves and roots, and show an indeterminate pattern of growth, which can continue Why do plants have diffuse, indeterminate growth patterns? indefinitely from the shoot apex or tips of the roots • Roots branch out to reach diffuse resources of water and minerals • Shoots branch out to gather diffuse resources of light and carbon dioxide 9 • Apical meristems the localized growth centers of plants, are found at the tips of all roots and stems • Lateral meristems produce layers of wood and bark in trees 10 Growth of the shoot occurs in the apical meristem 11 The apical meristem of the root is covered by the root cap Most Most absorption of water and minerals takes place in the root
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This note was uploaded on 02/10/2010 for the course BSC 2010 taught by Professor Essig during the Spring '10 term at University of Southern Maine.

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09.Terrestrial Plants - 1 What is a plant? Photosynthetic...

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