Chapter 3 - M03_STAL6329_06_SE_C03.QXD 2/13/08 2:26 PM Page...

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P ART T WO T he fundamental task of any modern operating system is process manage- ment. The operating system must allocate resources to processes, enable processes to share and exchange information, protect the resources of each process from other processes, and enable synchronization among processes.To meet these requirements, the operating system must maintain a data structure for each process that describes the state and resource ownership of that process and that en- ables the operating system to exert process control. On a multiprogramming uniprocessor, the execution of multiple processes can be interleaved in time. On a multiprocessor, not only may process execution be in- terleaved, but also multiple processes can execute simultaneously. Both interleaved and simultaneous execution are types of concurrency and lead to a host of difficult problems, both for the application programmer and the operating system. In many contemporary operating systems, the difficulties of process manage- ment are compounded by the introduction of the concept of thread. In a multi- threaded system, the process retains the attributes of resource ownership, while the attribute of multiple, concurrent execution streams is a property of threads running within a process. ROAD MAP FOR PART TWO Chapter 3 Process Description and Control The focus of a traditional operating system is the management of processes. Each process is, at any time, in one of a number of execution states, including Ready, Running, and Blocked. The operating system keeps track of these execution states and manages the movement of processes among the states. For this pur- pose the operating system maintains rather elaborate data structures describing each process. The operating system must perform the scheduling function and provide facilities for process sharing and synchronization. Chapter 3 looks at the data structures and techniques used in a typical operating system for process management. Processes 105 M03_STAL6329_06_SE_C03.QXD 2/13/08 2:26 PM Page 105
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106 PART 2 / PROCESSES Chapter 4 Threads, SMP, and Microkernels Chapter 4 covers three areas that characterize many contemporary operating sys- tems and that represent advances over traditional operating system design. In many operating systems, the traditional concept of process has been split into two parts: one dealing with resource ownership (process) and one dealing with the stream of instruction execution (thread). A single process may contain multiple threads. A multithreaded organization has advantages both in the structuring of applications and in performance. Chapter 4 also examines the symmetric multiprocessor (SMP), which is a computer system with multiple processors, each of which is able to exe- cute all application and system code. SMP organization enhances performance and reliability. SMP is often used in conjunction with multithreading but can have pow- erful performance benefits even without multithreading. Finally, Chapter 4 exam-
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This note was uploaded on 02/10/2010 for the course EXTC 56 taught by Professor Stalling during the Spring '10 term at Abu Dhabi University.

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Chapter 3 - M03_STAL6329_06_SE_C03.QXD 2/13/08 2:26 PM Page...

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