10-Topics-Memory-1

10-Topics-Memory-1 - Introduction to Cognitive Science...

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Introduction to Cognitive Science PSYCH 1102/COGST 1101/LING 1170/ PHIL 1910/CS 1710
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Topics: Memory Recollection vs. re-collection Salvador Dali: The Persistence of Memory (1931)
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Outline What do we use memory for? Of humans and goldfish? Memory as reconstruction Thoughts from eyewitness testimony Implicit memories Memory without “knowing” Why do we do things this way? Is computer memory really better?
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What do we use memory for? Of humans and goldfish
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What do we use memory for? First a quick memory test: How many animals of each kind did Moses  bring onto the Ark?
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What do we use memory for? “They say goldfish have  no memories, I guess their lives are   much like mine. And the little plastic  castle, Is a surprise every time.” Little Plastic Castles -Ani DiFranco
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What do we use memory for? “We are the sum  total of our  memories”
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What do we use memory for? Memory is the basis for: Categorization Knowledge representation Schema Language processing Object recognition In short, almost everything we do!
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What is knowledge representation? Sensation Perception Cognition Action Memory is the result of perception & cognition  but also influences new perception & cognition
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What do we use memory for? Back to our quick memory test: How many animals of each kind did Moses  bring onto the Ark? 2? 7? 0?
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What do we use memory for? If our concept of self is so driven by our  memories, why are we bad at it?
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Memory as reconstruction Thoughts from eyewitness testimony
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Memory as reconstruction Imagine you witness a crime Later you read a newspaper account of the  crime Will information from the newspaper account  influence your recollection of the crime itself? One would hope not! We trust our memories for events
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Loftus & colleagues (1980s & 90s) Show participants slides of a car accident Ask, ”How fast were the cars going when  they… …hit each other?”   34 mph …smashed into each other?”   41 mph Wording of the question influences  performance! Memory as reconstruction
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Loftus & colleagues (1980s & 90s) Later ask both groups of participants if  broken glass was ever in the pictures  (there wasn’t) “Hit” group:   14% say yes “smashed” group:   32% say yes Wording of the previous question influences  memory for the initial images! Memory as reconstruction
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Loftus & colleagues (1980s & 90s) Present image of car running a stop sign Ask how fast car was going when it ran the  yield sign Later ask participants to choose which of  three signs was in the image (stop, yield  or one way) Memory as reconstruction
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Loftus & colleagues (1980s & 90s)
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