16-Topics-EmergentComplexity - Introduction to Cognitive...

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    Introduction to Cognitive Science PSYCH 1102/COGST 1101/LING 1170/ PHIL 1910/CS 1710
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    Topics: Emergent Complexity Ants, brains & societies
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    Outline Dynamic systems Physics for cognitive scientists Complex systems in nature I Birds, fish and ants Modeling emergent complexity Complex systems in nature II Humans as complex systems Evolving cognition Why do things this way?
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    Dynamic systems Physics for cognitive scientists
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    What is a dynamic system? A method of investigating complex systems borrowed from  physics Complex interactions of lots of variables Typically via direct, analog methods Changes over time Rate of change changes over time Points of stability and points of chaos in the system Nonlinear Cannot describe the pattern of data with traditional  linear mathematics Dynamic Systems
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    The Watt steam engine Piston drives flywheel Flywheel drives load Speed of the flywheel is  dependent on many factors Steam pressure Size of the load Lubrication Etc Flywheel needs a constant  speed to do work properly Dynamic Systems
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    A computational approach Attach a sensor to the flywheel Measures the speed (RPM) of the flywheel Attach a sensor to the steam reservoir Measures steam pressure Attach an actuator to the steam reservoir Increases or decreases pressure in the piston Create a CPU to handle all this Compares RPM at flywheel to desired RPM Compares pressure in reservoir to safe values Increases or decreases pressure as necessary Dynamic Systems
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    Digital system Symbolic system Brain + body system Dynamic Systems
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    An alternative approach And the one James Watt invented since he  didn’t have a CPU in the 1800s Dynamic Systems
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    The speed of the weights is directly  controlled by the flywheel itself As the flywheel speeds up, the weights push out As the flywheel slows down, the weights push in The movement of the weights directly  controls the steam valve As the weights push in, the valve opens As the weights push out, the valve closes Dynamic Systems
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    This is a dynamic systems solution The change in steam pressure is constantly  controlled (in an analog manner) by the speed of  the flywheel There is no discrete representation of flywheel  speed of of pressure There is no separate “Brain” There is reciprocal causation between the speed  of the flywheel and the status of the steam valve Dynamic Systems
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    A human example Infant walking Before 2 months infants show “coordinated 
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This note was uploaded on 02/10/2010 for the course COGST 1101 taught by Professor Spivey,m during the Fall '07 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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16-Topics-EmergentComplexity - Introduction to Cognitive...

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