ENGRI_1110_Lect16_09_posted - Lithium Batteries Li...

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Lithium Batteries Lithium Batteries Li batteries, Li-ion batteries Rechargeable One of best energy-to-weight ratio No memory effect Slow loss of charge when not in use Safety problems
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Li-ion batteries Li-ion batteries Work by intercalation Lithium metal oxide cathode (Co,Mn, Ni based) Graphite anode Organic solvent electrolyte with Lithium salt Li-ion polymer batteries use gelled polymers as electrolytes
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Battery Operation Battery Operation Charge Discharge Charge Discharge Charge Discharge Cathode LiCoO 2 Anode Battery as a whole 6C + LiCoO 2 Li 1-x CoO 2 + C 6 Li x Li 1-x CoO 2 + xLi + + xe 6C + xLi + + xe C 6 Li x
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LiCoO LiCoO 2 2 Layers
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LiMn LiMn 2 2 O O 4 4 Channels
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Conventional Cathode Conventional Cathode Charge Discharge Cathode: LiCoO 2 Li 1-x CoO 2 + xLi + + xe Atomic ordering in cathode changes as Li moves in and out:  mechanical stresses on battery  Oxygen is not tightly bound to Co, so heating can release O which can lead to exothermic  reactions Li is not removed from cathode when charged (x does not equal 1), so over time Li gets stuck in  cathode      Degradation in charging      Short-circuit of battery Large particles make path for Li and for electrons long: slows charge and discharge Diffusion of Li depends on orientation of particle
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Cathode Behavior Cathode Behavior Control of preferred orientation of deposited cathode film Control of preferred orientation of deposited cathode film LiCoO LiCoO 2 2 cathode cathode Resistivity Resistivity (101), (104) < (003)
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Cathode Materials Cathode Materials LiCoO 2 www. li mn2o4.com Goal: increase electron current Approach: increase the effective electrode  area which decreases the internal  resistance of the battery Solution: Nanomaterials
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New Cathode Materials New Cathode Materials
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Batteries for Hybrids Batteries for Hybrids Ni-MH battery in current Toyota Lexus and Prius Lithium-Ion batteries to go into new Prius models Turn your Prius into a plug-in, all-electric vehicle with Li A123 Hymotion L5 Plug-in Conversion Modules are designed to convert Toyota Prius HEVs into PHEVs that can achieve up to 100 mpg for 30-40 miles*
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ENGRI_1110_Lect16_09_posted - Lithium Batteries Li...

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