ENGRI1110_Lect9_Sept16_09_posted - Refraction ni/nr =...

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Refraction n i /n  = sin(r)/sin(i) i r
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Refractive Index n = velocity in vacuum/velocity in material Material n Air 1.0003 Water  1.33 Ice 1.30 SiO 2 1.45 Diamond 2.42
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Reflectivity (Insulators) R = Intensity In/Intensity Reflected = (n-1) 2 /(n+1) 2 Ice: 2%  Glass: 6% Diamond: 17%
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Reflectivity In Air (Metals) R = ((n-1) 2 + k 2 ) /((n+1) 2 + k 2 ) Visible light does not transmit well in metals Free electrons absorb light by “oscillating” at light frequency Oscillations re-radiate light collectively Radiation is “out of phase” with incident light Radiated light is emitted outside of metal as reflection Light penetrates a depth = (n  λ )/(2k  π ) Silver:  n=0.05, k=3 R = 0.90, depth of penetration for  λ  =400 nm is 1 nm  
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Total Internal Reflection i 1 r 1 i 2 i 3 r 2 r 3 n 1 n 2 n 1 > n 2 Critical incident angle above which light does not escape
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Optical Fiber Requirements Contain light Total internal reflection No defects No loss of intensity Low attenuation (dB/km)
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The Discovery Donald Keck Robert Maurer Peter Schultz Corning Corning
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ENGRI1110_Lect9_Sept16_09_posted - Refraction ni/nr =...

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