Workbook Answers (Chapters 1-4)

Workbook Answers (Chapters 1-4) - Workbook Section: 1-1...

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Workbook Section: 1-1 Historical Viewpoints: 1) Describe an example of an association you have made between two stimuli from your daily experience. What is the triggering stimulus? What memory is activated by the stimulus? Is this association based on learning? What is your evidence for this? This is a straightforward question, but students should demonstrate familiarity with chapter 1 terms and concepts to answer the question. 2) What were Aristotle’s laws of association? Using your example of an association described above, which of Aristotle’s laws apply? How? Contiguity, similarity, contrast. A description of how one of these laws applies to the example above. 3) What is functional neurology? Why are studies of learning relevant to it? See p. 11. Student should provide a basic definition of functional neurology andpoint out how early neurologists conducted studies of learning. Furthermore, theunderlying nervous structures that control learning were of interest to functional neurologists. 4) What are the critical features of a model system that is designed to represent other species or situations? See pp 12-14. Students should point out features such as: The relevant features or functions between model and species/situation should be comparable If an animal model is used, then the animal model and species compared (e.g., humans) should be similar. 1-2 Defining Learning 1) How does the definition of learning quoted above distinguish between learning and fatigue or motivational changes? The key phrase is “enduring change”. Fatigue and motivational changes would be brief in comparison to change based on learning. Students should elaborate on this point. 2) How does the definition distinguish between learning and maturation? A change based on maturation may not require prior experience with a particular stimulus or response. Also, a change based on maturation may not require a specific relationship between a stimulus and a response.
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3) What is performance? How does the definition of learning distinguish between learning and performance? The text describes performance as an organism’s actions at a particular time. The distinction is made by defining learning in terms of changes in behavioral mechanisms. Performance (or non-performance) of a behavior can be attributed to many causes. 4) What aspect of the definition makes learning a causal mechanism? The definition specifies that learning is a change in the mechanisms of behavior that result from experience with stimuli and responses. A more detailed discussion on causal mechanisms can be found on p. 16. 1-2.2 Applying the definition: 1) A rat is placed in a t-maze. The left arm of the maze is lighted and the right arm of the maze is dark. The dark portion of the maze has food at the end of it. On the first 20 trials the rat enters the dark portion on 10 of the trials. On the next set of 20 trials the rat enters the dark portion on all 20 trials. Is the change in behavior between the first 20 trials and the second 20 trials due to
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This note was uploaded on 02/10/2010 for the course PSYC 356 taught by Professor Bishop during the Spring '08 term at Binghamton University.

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Workbook Answers (Chapters 1-4) - Workbook Section: 1-1...

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