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Ch 41 review notes

Ch 41 review notes - CHAPTER 41 Animal Form and Function...

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CHAPTER 41: Animal Form and Function Arabian oryx – animal that never drinks. Gets water from  vegetation it eats and from water synthesized as a by-product of cellular  respiration (aka  metabolic water ).  Anatomy - the study of an organism’s physical structure Physiology - the study of how the physical structures in an organism  function Adaptations - traits that allow individuals to survive and reproduce in a  certain environment better than do individuals that lack those traits I. Form, Function & Adaptation Trade off - an inescapable compromise between traits.  Ex- time and energy a female has to devote to egg production Clutch size - the # of eggs laid by each female (ex: graph of mass of egg vs clutch size… increase egg size, decrease  clutch size. Shows there is a tradeoff between egg size & # in this species) Acclimatization - physiological and biochemical changes that take place in  response to environmental conditions that change within an individual’s  lifetime.  A phenotypic change in an individual in response to short-term  changes in the environment.  **occurs within the lifetime (even if genetic changes) Adaptation - a genetic change in a population in response to natural  selection exerted by the environment.  **occurs over time II.  Tissues, Organs, and Systems Multicellular - distinct types of cells that specialize for diff functions Tissues - high integrated units in which cells work together to perform a  specific function. 4 types of tissues; 1. Connective Tissue     - consists of cells that are loosely arranged in a  liquid, jellylike, or solid extracellular matrix, which is secreted by the  connective tissue cells themselves. 
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a. Loose connective tissue     - contains an array of fibrous proteins in  a soft matrix and serves as a packing material between organs  or padding under the skin. b. Cartiledge & Bone     - have a firmer extracellular matrix. They  provide structural support for the body or protective enclosures  for the brain and other compartments of the nervous system. c. Blood     - a connective tissue that has cells surrounded by a liquid  extracellular matrix called plasma. Blood functions in the  transport of materials through the body. 2. Nervous Tissue     - consists of nerve cells (aka  neurons ) and several  types of supporting cells. They have projections that contact other  cells. These projections deliver electrochemical signals, which are  produced by changes in the permeability of the neuron’s plasma  membrane to ions.  3. Muscle Tissue     - functions mainly in movement.  a. Striated muscle     - consists of long cells called 
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