Hybridization - Hybridization Hybridization is an...

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Unformatted text preview: Hybridization Hybridization is an alternative to VSEPR theory that accounts for local geometry in molecules. It arose out of chemists recognition that although atoms like carbon use two different types of valence orbital, 2s and 2p, the four covalent bonds it forms in a compound like methane, CH 4 , are identical. I. sp 3 Hybridization - methane When a carbon atom forms four covalent bonds as it does in methane, it uses one 2s valence shell orbital and three 2p valence shell orbitals. Evidence shows that all four bonds in methane are equivalent. To account for this, theorists proposed that the single 2s and three 2p valence- shell atomic orbitals were mixed and four equivalent hybrid orbitals, each one part 2s and three parts 2p, sp 3 hybrids , were used to form bonds. Quantum mechanics provided the satisfying bonus that the sp 3 orbitals were directed toward the corners of a regular tetrahedron, thus hybridization theory accounted for both the four equivalent bonds and carbon's tetrahedral...
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Hybridization - Hybridization Hybridization is an...

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