01-02-汉语简介-方言

01-02-汉语简介-方言

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Chinese -- with the largest number of speakers -- ; , q 2 ) -- q 2 ) q -- 1 Total – 1.3 billion - 13 1 --- 90% of the population speak Chinese. --- about 10%, or about 91 million, belong to the 55 different non-Han ethnic minorities, such as Uygurs, Mongols, Tibetans, and Koreans. -- 1 9,600,000 (9.6 million) sq km - is vast enough to cover all of western Europe; it is slightly larger than the United States but smaller than Canada. -- n C sino-Tibetan family - D r 1 isolate languages) Both are SOV, unrelated to Chinese. -- 1 , q Mandarin 1 . . & . . & -- Mandarin A Mandarin was a bureaucrat in imperial China (China in the dynasties). 2
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The English term comes from the Portuguese mandarim (meaning councilor or minister ). The term is now used to refer to the northern spoken variety of Chinese because it was the language used among officials during the Ming and Qing dynasties. Some people think the term comes from (1 ), meaning a " Manchu official", or at least
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Unformatted text preview: having to do with Manchu . However, since there is no direct evidence supporting this hypothesis, and since the word "mandarin" is attested in the early 16th century before the Qing Dynasty , this is deemed unlikely by linguists.-- & q q h )-- q , n i ) The major dialects spoken in China "the Chinese language" actually consists of seven major dialects : -- n i Mandarin (the northern) Mandarin itself has four subgroups ( ) which are as mutually intelligible as are the various dialects of English. p E K q E41 ,1 q h ) 3/4 h ) 2/3 1 n i ) q i ) 3000 q-- 1 Yue (includes Cantonese) q i )-- 1 Wu (includes Shanghainese), -- 1 q-- 1 h )-- 1 ) y q q-- 1 ) y q e E e E 5 k ) 5 k ) A q C q s E E-D r 3 Comparison of three major dialects: 1 1 1 voiced stops b-, d-, g-no yes no tones 4 5 9 p, -t, -k, -m no no yes ng-no yes yes zh-, ch-, sh-yes no no contrast between n and -ng yes no yes # of vowels 6 13 7 # of consonants 20 29 19 4...
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This note was uploaded on 02/10/2010 for the course CHIN 462 taught by Professor Li during the Spring '10 term at University of North Carolina Wilmington.

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01-02-汉语简介-方言

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