04-汉字注音史

04-汉字注音史

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Unformatted text preview: 1. ". ". ". " 1. 3 2. 3 3 3. 7 "" "" "" "" " " " "" " " " "" " " " "" " 2. . (qi]e): ~ 1 K 3 c 6 " , 7 K ." (200AD)" 7 K 1800 " . " -" bu niao3 c jin xiang1 gu shuang1 yi que4 c nu-dai4 6 6 c 3 "" ," "" ," 3.. . . . "" ( c " ( " K " " "" "" "" . ( c ( c " (1) 3 ), (2)d 3 w " (12) oe K , (50) " " " " " " " " " " " " " 4. . " (. ---" sh Y Y J G (21) " u u i u e i e a a a n ng ng (X A c ) (42) e sh i Y u e Y u a J i a G u a n ng ng (X A c ) ) " 1918 " 11 " 23 X A . " (24): " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " (16): " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " ". 7 K : " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " zh ch sh " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " a " " ie ai ei ao ou " er " " " an en ang eng , " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " (1) " - 7 K (2) 3 " " 66 c K , oe (3) 7 K K , - c 6 6 c K oe K " 2008 " 9 " 16 " " " " " " " 7 K 2009 " 1 " 1 " " 5. 2 ) Guoyu Romanization (tonal spelling) Table of Initials b p m t d n g k h j ch sh tz ts s f l r y/i w/u Table of Endings Row (open) -i -u -n -ng A y a i ai ei au ou an en ang eng ong I i ia ie iai iau ian in iang ing iou iong U u ua uo uai uei uan uenuang ueng IU iu iue iuan iun Rule #2 To make Tone #2 from finals in Row A of the table, add r after the vowel: cha goes to char [cha2], he goes to her [he2], tsai goes to tsair [cai2], chen goes to chern [chen2] hong goes to horng [hong2] Rule #3 To make Tone #2 from finals in Rows I, U, and IU, change the medials i, u, and iu into y, w, and yu, respectively: shiang goes to shyang [xiang2] hua goes to hwa [hua2] ching goes to chyng [qing2] iuan goes to yuan [yuan2] chi goes to chyi [qi2] hu goes to hwu [hu2] i goes to yi [yi2] Rule #4 To make Tone #3, any vowel letter used alone, as well as any e appearing next to i (that is, in ei and ie) and any o appearing next to u (that is, in ou and uo), are doubled: jy goes to jyy [zhi3] da goes to daa [da3] ching goes to chiing [qing3] gei goes to geei [gei3] jie goes to jiee [jie3] shou goes to shoou [shou3] huo goes to huoo [huo3] Rule #5 To make Tone #3, change the medial or ending i, u, iu into e, o, eu, respectively. jiang goes to jeang [jiang3] guen goes to goen [gun3] jiuan goes to jeuan [juan3] mai goes to mae [mai3] hau goes to hao [hao3] Rule #6 In order to make Tone #4, change the endings zero, -i, -u, -n, -ng, and -l (L) into -h, -y, -w, -nn, -nq (N+Q), and -ll (double L), respectively: ju goes to juh [zhu4] mai goes to may [mai4] gou goes to gow [gou4] man goes to mann [man4] shang goes to shanq [shang4] el goes to ell [er2] Rule #7 The basic form of a syllable beginning with the letters m, n, l, or r is considered to be in Tone #2. ma [ma2], nian [nian2], lai [lai2], ren [ren2]. To make these syllables into Tone #1, add h after the initial: ma goes to mha [ma1] nie goes to nhie [nie1] la goes to lha [la1] reng goes to rheng [reng1] Rule #8 In order to make Tone #3 when a zero initial occurs with a final from Rows I, U, or IU, add the letter y-, w-, y-, respectively. iou goes to yeou [you3] (compare jeou [jiu3]), ua goes to woa [wa3] (compare goa [gua3]), iuan goes to yoan [yuan3] (compare cheuan [quan3]). Rule #9 In order to make Tone #4 when a zero initial occurs with these same finals (finals from Rows I, U, or IU), you must change the initials i-, u-, iu- into y-, w-, yu-, respectively. iau goes to yaw [yao4] (compare jiaw [jiao4]), uen goes to wenn [wen4] iun (compare kuenn [kun4]), goes to yunn [yun4] (compare jiunn [jun4]). But add the initials y or w to the four finals -ih, -uh, -inn, -inq (that is, N+Q). E.g.: i goes to yih [yi4], u goes to wuh [wu4], in goes to yinn [yin4], ing goes to yinq [ying4]. 6. . 1958 ~ 1 1978 6 6 * 66 * K+ 0 K, j # K, oe oe K 7 K , ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/10/2010 for the course CHIN 462 taught by Professor Li during the Spring '10 term at University of North Carolina Wilmington.

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