多音字_10_15_2009

多音å...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Tuesday, October 13, 2009 3:37 PM u - Xing(-) Feng(4th) 1. u Morphology - study of word elements Morpheme o : - h G U . (smallest unit of meaning) - can be a word or part of a word. a red car -- a meaning `one' a+typical a+moral a+sexual -- a meaning `not/without' o Part of the word but also a morpheme Friendliness 3 morpheme Friend; Friendli; Friendliness unrewritable CD 4 morphemes Write; Rewrite; Writable; Unrewritable 2. Morphology: N L " word" o "o " : 3. the most basic building blocks: Word o In Chinese, the most basic building block is: CHARACTER One character is not a word by itself sometimes Ex. u and u 4. unit of writing u 5. 6. N z ' o Entries: u = wordsu u = Characteru 7. N z ' o " " 8. 9. N z "' ": unit of writing - the basic element (Word boundaries are not indicated.) 10. 1 morpheme = 1 character = 1 syllable m ' 11. used to count manuscript length 12. used for dictionary entries (even u ) 13. basic unit for teaching u . 14. 1 morpheme = 1 character = 1 syllable 15. In Chinese, u is a modern linguistic word, just as the word "morpheme" to average English speakers. 16. The Chinese do not think in terms of words. They, by instinct, think in terms of u "characters". 17. u is nothing but two characters. 18. u is a 3-character unit. 19. Qs: Is it one word or two words? (Who cares?) 20. u u: u 1: of 6,321 Chinese written words T&T342-33 1/3 G ' = single syllable words_ G 2/3 G ' (more formal) 5% u 3+u (most formal) u 2: 1996 u of 31,159 words u 12% u 74% 3+u 14% u 3: of 3000 frequently used words u u u Nouns 1,621 1,379 85% Adjectives 451 311 69% Verbs 941 573 61% 21. (casual words) p,, Structure of 2-character words T&T34-35: (1) Reduplication = o o (u ) u u u u u u u u mU M M U (2) affixation o : prefixes and suffixes -u N Z5 ' f' e ' -u G ' -u v _ e -u f ' _ -u v P v v _ p u -u m ' uu -o p ,, ... (3) Compounding o : M U M o affixation u A. subject + verb u u u B. joining two synonyms e ' _ p,, u u u u u u C. joining two near-synonyms m ' u u u u u u u u D. joining two antonyms ~ T m ' G ' NZ u u sizeu u u u A 1v v ^( j ' p _ ;u v u u u E. verb + object u +u u u u u u u u F. modifier + modified u +X G ' u u u u u u u u G. verb + complement u +u u u u u u u u u H. noun-classifier u u room u paper u vehicle u mail u boat 22. u +o =o 1. To give more visual and audio cues to reduce ambiguity. ~ G u u vs. u u u vs. u u u vs. u 2. To reduce, although by no means to eliminate, homophones. X G vs. u X G vs. u (u vs. u X G vs. u X G vs. u X G vs. u X G vs. u (u vs. u m ' m ' How are New Words created? Electricity u light u electric light bulb u tram u electric car elevator u electric ladder fan u electric fan telephone u electric talk movie u electric shadow telegram u electric report television u electric vision soap opera u electric vision drama TV station u electric vision station computer u electric brain fax u electric transfer 23. Refrigerator u electric ice box battery u electricity pool draft u electric send switch u electric door appliances u electric instrument o G u ^ G ^ G ' u (compound Words) 1 modifier + n u ~ u 2 whole + part u ~ u 3 category + n ~u u 4 adjective + n ~u u 5 verb + n ~u u h u ( u N Z 5 " u u u u u u u u u u h " f ' ] ' u u u u u u u h u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u classical in modern words h h h G ' h G ' (^ G h ^ G h G ' G ' ) u u u u u u u u (u )u u u e A 1 v v P v _ h vu Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoatnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be at the rghit pclae. The rset can be a toatl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. o o o o o 24. 25. -o -o -o -o -o e xG Usually there is no indication of word class, such as ly, -ness, in-, in ... x M ' ' x M U x M U x M U x M U o x M U o o o o -o -o -o -o o o o o -o -o -o -o 7 d@ @u@ @ E + English. x M o x M x M o o o o U m U M M M M U M U M U 26. o) u M Word Classeso ^ xj U p _ Ex. "u ...", G Ex. u "u ...", G Ex. u "u ...", G Ex. u "u ...... , G " Ex. u "u ..."x G Ex. u "...x "G U P VS. U u u U u u u u _ _ P u ` o Ex. m ' "...X "G ' u Ex. h G m ' form ~ T m ' Ex. Decision vs. Decide & decided ... G ' NZ 5 ...
View Full Document

Ask a homework question - tutors are online