Unformatted text preview: Tuesday, October 13, 2009 3:37 PM u - Xing(-) Feng(4th) 1. u Morphology - study of word elements Morpheme o : - h G U . (smallest unit of meaning) - can be a word or part of a word. a red car -- a meaning `one' a+typical a+moral a+sexual -- a meaning `not/without' o Part of the word but also a morpheme Friendliness 3 morpheme Friend; Friendli; Friendliness unrewritable CD 4 morphemes Write; Rewrite; Writable; Unrewritable 2. Morphology: N L " word" o "o " : 3. the most basic building blocks: Word o In Chinese, the most basic building block is: CHARACTER One character is not a word by itself sometimes Ex. u and u 4. unit of writing u 5. 6. N z ' o Entries: u = wordsu u = Characteru 7. N z ' o " " 8. 9. N z "' ": unit of writing - the basic element (Word boundaries are not indicated.) 10. 1 morpheme = 1 character = 1 syllable m ' 11. used to count manuscript length 12. used for dictionary entries (even u ) 13. basic unit for teaching u . 14. 1 morpheme = 1 character = 1 syllable 15. In Chinese, u is a modern linguistic word, just as the word "morpheme" to average English speakers. 16. The Chinese do not think in terms of words. They, by instinct, think in terms of u "characters". 17. u is nothing but two characters. 18. u is a 3-character unit. 19. Qs: Is it one word or two words? (Who cares?) 20. u u: u 1: of 6,321 Chinese written words T&T342-33 1/3 G ' = single syllable words_ G 2/3 G ' (more formal) 5% u 3+u (most formal) u 2: 1996 u of 31,159 words u 12% u 74% 3+u 14% u 3: of 3000 frequently used words u u u Nouns 1,621 1,379 85% Adjectives 451 311 69% Verbs 941 573 61% 21. (casual words) p,, Structure of 2-character words T&T34-35: (1) Reduplication = o o (u ) u u u u u u u u mU M M U (2) affixation o : prefixes and suffixes -u N Z5 ' f' e ' -u G ' -u v _ e -u f ' _ -u v P v v _ p u -u m ' uu -o p ,, ... (3) Compounding o : M U M o affixation u A. subject + verb u u u B. joining two synonyms e ' _ p,, u u u u u u C. joining two near-synonyms m ' u u u u u u u u D. joining two antonyms ~ T m ' G ' NZ u u sizeu u u u A 1v v ^( j ' p _ ;u v u u u E. verb + object u +u u u u u u u u F. modifier + modified u +X G ' u u u u u u u u G. verb + complement u +u u u u u u u u u H. noun-classifier u u room u paper u vehicle u mail u boat
22. u +o =o 1. To give more visual and audio cues to reduce ambiguity. ~ G u u vs. u u u vs. u u u vs. u 2. To reduce, although by no means to eliminate, homophones. X G vs. u X G vs. u (u vs. u X G vs. u X G vs. u X G vs. u X G vs. u (u vs. u m ' m ' How are New Words created? Electricity u light u electric light bulb u tram u electric car elevator u electric ladder fan u electric fan telephone u electric talk movie u electric shadow telegram u electric report television u electric vision soap opera u electric vision drama TV station u electric vision station computer u electric brain fax u electric transfer
23. Refrigerator u electric ice box battery u electricity pool draft u electric send switch u electric door appliances u electric instrument
o G u ^ G ^ G ' u (compound Words) 1 modifier + n u ~ u 2 whole + part u ~ u 3 category + n ~u u 4 adjective + n ~u u 5 verb + n ~u u h u ( u N Z 5 " u u u u u u u u u u h " f ' ] ' u u u u u u u h u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u classical in modern words h h h G ' h G ' (^ G h ^ G h G ' G ' ) u u u u u u u u (u )u u u e A 1 v v P v _ h vu Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoatnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be at the rghit pclae. The rset can be a toatl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. o o o o o 24. 25. -o -o -o -o -o e xG Usually there is no indication of word class, such as ly, -ness, in-, in ... x M ' ' x M U x M U x M U x M U o x M U o o o o -o -o -o -o o o o o -o -o -o -o 7 [email protected] @[email protected] @ E + English. x M o x M x M o
o o o U m U M M M M U M U M U 26.
o) u M Word Classeso ^ xj U p _ Ex. "u ...", G Ex. u "u ...", G Ex. u "u ...", G Ex. u "u ...... , G " Ex. u "u ..."x G Ex. u "...x "G U P VS. U u u U u u u u _ _ P u ` o Ex. m ' "...X "G ' u Ex. h G m ' form ~ T m ' Ex. Decision vs. Decide & decided ... G ' NZ 5 ...
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