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PSYC 3541 - PSYC 3540 Cognitive Psychology Dr Francisco...

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PSYC 3540 – Cognitive Psychology Dr. Francisco Arcediano — STUDY QUESTIONS — Chapter 1: The Science of Cognition 1. What are the motivations to study cognitive psychology? intellectual curiosity, AI, 2. What are the implications of cogn itive psychology for other fields? Can you describe some of the practical applications of cognitive psychology? Why certain thought malfunctions occur Cclincial psychology) how people behave with other individuals or with groups (social psychology)How persuasion works: Political science, Artificial Intelligence,• Practical Application• Law: on the reliability of eyewitness testimony)• Design of computer systems: HCI, UI• Education (how to teach, how to teach learn) e.g., improving study habits • Practical Applications Education (e.g., improving study habits)PQ4R technique• P review• Q uestion• R ead• R eflect• R ecite R eview 3. How cognitive psychology came to be as we know it today? What are its historical roots? before psychology there was philosophy and the big picture of the philosophical roots of all psychology in general is a picture of (1) empiricism--all knowledge is derived from experience, and of (2) associationism--knowledge proceeds by associating together sensory impressions. A.) Plato Plato was one of the first early philosophers to consider human thinking. Plato conceptualized mind like a block of wax, upon which perceptions and ideas make an impression. While the impression of an idea remains, we can remember it. B.) Aristotle Aristotle (c. 350 B.C.) -- believed all learning was determined by association. Governed by: contiguity (more closely together in space or time two items occur, the more likely will the thought of one item lead to the thought of the other), similarity (the thought of one concept often leads to the thought of similar concepts), contrast (the thought of one concept often leads to the thought of its opposite). Historical Importance: first attempt at scientific account of the mind. Contemporary Importance: beginning of nature/nurture debate. C.) Rene Descartes (1596- 1650): nativist --we are born with innate ideas and abilities. Cartesian (mind/body) Dualism - divided behavior in 2 classes: 1.) involuntary (body behavior): mechanical behavior in response to external stimuli: reflex arc - A stimulus is transmitted to the brain by a nerve (a hollow tube containing 'animal spirits'). 2.) voluntary (mind behavior): behavior governed by soul or mind--only humans are capable of and distinguishes man from beast. Actions of the mind governed by reason, not by physical laws. D.) The Empiricists: British philosophers of the 17th century: Typified by Locke (1690): All knowledge acquired through experience--tabula rasa --we are born with a blank slate onto which is written all of our experiences.
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