answers - 1 Model/approach 3 levels-paradigm theory...

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1. Model/approach- 3 levels-paradigm, theory, metaphor, Theory. Identifies a distinct class of phenomena Metaphor –smallest unit. Known to unknown. Paradigm-shared knowledge of scientific community. Paradigm shift “science changes because of anomalies and anomalies must be explained into accepted knowledge.” "theory" is an abstract, linguistic metaphor, a generalization of "empirical findings" to a pattern or system. "Models" and "theories" are both formalized expressions that seek to grasp sociocultural dynamics in simplified terms. A "model" (a term which has gained currency in anthropology since the Second World War) is generally more strictly formalized than a theory; it is more similar to mathematical or logical expressions (though, in anthropology, it is very rare to find a model which can actually be translated into numerical terms 2. 17th- 19th century, Rationalism, Knowledge is progressive + linear, Age of discovery, Knowledge varied by experiment, Liberating<----------God as clockmaker God as creator of all cultures, universalism 3. Natural LAWS IS nature good or bad? Are nature and civilization opposites? Early classification bioevolution biology, Linnaeus, Darwin, Lemark 4. B rit ish empire, colonization. The “other! Conceptualization. Missionaries, networks established, cultural evolution = empire enterprise. Early anthropologists mainly British or colony. Access -> culture contact. 5.3 lines to the Enlightenment 1. Theology Plato Transcendent Essences St. Augustine God perfect man sin Trade Navigation 2. Humanism Socrates- self education 3. Science Aristotle Observe the natural world and experiment to come to conclusion Aquinas Reason from nature but inspiration from divine Reason + faith Conjectural history
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Last modified by: Megan Known and unknown, God and man, How many divine forces in Hindi faith China was major trade route too Major travelers? The silk road from 959 BC What came after the three? Uniformitarianism - - --> progress through? Cause and effect thinking and reasoning- kinda linear Behind it is the idea is figure out the natural cause-effect laws apply to humans Natural LAWS IS nature good or bad? Are nature and civilization opposites? Early classification bioevolution biology, Linnaeus, Darwin, Lemark 6. Darwin –Spencer was precursor. Simple to complex. Evolution. Progressive view. Victorian Englishmen were easily persuaded that some "natural selection" of living things occurred analogously to what they knew about selection of domestic organisms, about groups of human beings with "class" status, about nations competing in world economics, and about naval and land warfare. Karl Marx was a prime leader among the intelligentsia of the world who utilized Darwin's concept of "natural selection," or "struggle for existence. 7. Spencer- Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher , prominent classical liberal political theorist , and sociological theorist of the Victorian era . Spencer developed an all-embracing conception of evolution as the progressive development of the physical world, biological organisms, the human mind, and human culture and societies. He is
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