1B_Romanesque

1B_Romanesque - Module 1B: Romanesque Architecture Study...

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Module 1B: Romanesque Architecture
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Study Questions 1. Romanesque architecture varied greatly across Europe. Compare and contrast two buildings from different regions. What were some shared characteristics? What were some significant differences? 2. Describe the major characteristics of the pilgrimage road churches. How is the basic plan of these churches related to the cult of relics? 3. What was the major structural innovation pursued by the builders of Romanesque churches in Normandy, England, and France? What were some of the drawbacks or difficulties associated with this goal? For each lecture, we will provide several study questions that address major issues from the lecture. These study questions should help you to synthesize the material and to prepare for the exams.
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Lecture Outline I. The European Architectural Context circa 1000 II. Regional Variations and Romanesque Architecture A. Burgundy B. Monasteries and Medieval Churches C. Pilgrimage Road Churches D. Normandy and England E. Italy
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I. The European Context circa 1000 The Church-building Boom • In the 11th century, trade and commerce prosper as Western Europe enters a period of relative political stability. • Of all the building types furthered by the prosperity of the 11th century, the church was the most central. • Monastic orders hold land and wealth and build many monumental churches. • Says one monk: “Shortly after the year 1000 it came about that churches were rebuilt practically throughout the world, and mainly in Italy and Gaul; and although most of them were very suitable, scarcely needing any alteration, all Christian peoples were seized with a great desire to outdo one another in magnificence. It was as if the world shook and cast off its old age, everywhere investing itself with the white mantle of churches.”
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Romanesque Architecture • “Romanesque”: This term refers to a type of architecture that begins in the 10th century and flourishes until the development of Gothic architecture in the late 12th century. • This architecture was heavily influenced by the architecture of ancient Rome, although it was also shaped by Carolingian and other intervening styles. The Pont du Gard, a Roman aqueduct near Nimes, France, displays the monumental scale and technical virtuosity of ancient Roman structures. Such structures served as evidence of a distant and glorious past.
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Medieval Europe ca. 800 In the 8th century, the Carolingian dynasty allies with the popes in Rome to more firmly establish political control over the Frankish Empire. In 800, Charlemagne is crowned emperor in Rome. He embarks on a monumental building program that recalls the ambitions of ancient Rome.
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Palatine Chapel. Aachen, Germany (ca. 800). Charlemagne’s chapel looks back to Roman and Byzantine buildings,
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This note was uploaded on 02/10/2010 for the course ARCH 218 taught by Professor Choi during the Spring '10 term at Cal Poly.

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1B_Romanesque - Module 1B: Romanesque Architecture Study...

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