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Ching 1C - ,n 7 WIPE THE HIGH MIDDLE AGES ‘ l span of...

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Unformatted text preview: ,n 7_ WIPE: THE HIGH MIDDLE AGES ‘ l - span of only a hundred years prior to 1270, the Skylines of Europe changed I,” ndly. The spires and towers of some major churches and cathedrals now _' .-.. their location in the landscape of : ny, and beyond. This energetic _ ' i: activitywasdriven bya renewed fervor that terminated in the .- but also left its mark in stone. .._ - from the selling of indulgence: by ‘_j;- Roman church was one of the main "_ m of financing often augmented by .3:- sources such as sending relies on 7 . The bishops of Chartres. for example. -i__ its relics as faraway as England to solicit .i' . buttons. The building of cathedrals was _, : time by farthe largest construction - ever attempted in Europe. . -.~ Cathedral, for example, was huge abteto hold morethanBOOO people. :‘m .. ,technotogically complex and “ dangerous, frequently took many _ - =~ and not infrequently hundreds of - Carolingian churches with their __s .. ng westworks and unlike Ottonian _"._-"-:-r churches, as at Hildesheim. that associated with markettownsandthat --not have had a facade at all, St. Denis, ..--.... u in 1144. had a facade that .2;- as a sacred threshold to its mystic 0 20m l2.“ Plan: St. Denis. but Paris. France 12.41 Facade. 5!. MI: The shift in focus dates to the Swod of Arras (1025). during which it was decided that sculptural programs could serve to help the illiterate contemplate what they could not understand through the written word. Statues once used only sparingly. and usually in relation to aristocratic worship practices, nowstood row upon malongthefacade. Compared with the Norman facade ofSt. Etienne (1067-87) in Caen. with its solid wall of stone facing the town, St Denis seems to almost float above the ground in front of it. Depleted overthemiddtedoorwasthe Divine Son in the Vicinity ofJudges. The church was begun on the west end rather than ontheeast.aswasthecustom because Abbot Sugar wanted his towers to beam their message tothe countryside. Abbot Sugar (1081-1155), one of the most powerful men in France and who was actively engaged in France’s political life. played a large role in runningthe kinm while King Louis VI was away on crusade. He wrote a book. The Book ofSugerAbbot ofSt. Denis on WhatWas Done Duringhrs Administration (ca. 1144). that g'ves valuable insight into his design ideas. For Sugar, the use of precious materials in the furnishings of the church. as well as the use of stained glass in the windows, was meant to draw a person's attention away from earthly concerns to higher. heavenly things. The entrance was through triple portals withthecentralonelargerthantheothers. recalling Roman triumphal arches and servingas a symbol of the Trinity. The Trinity had become important to theological speculation in the second quarter of the 12th century, and its restatement signified support for orthodox interpretation of the Bible and for papal authority. The tympanum over the door portrays Christ in judgment. The sculptures notwithstanding, Abbot Sugar held that the religious experience was one of transcendence, symbolized by disembodied light. In theoenterol‘thefacadetherewas a rosewindow, one ofthefirstofitskind, a grand wheel of light. The relationship between the facade and the interior was foretold, so Suger argued, by the portal that tells you “what shines here within, through palpable visual beauty. the soul is elevated to that which is truly beautiful, and rising from the earth, where itwas submerged, an inertthing, it is resuscitated in heaven bythe radiance of its glory." St Denis was also groundbreaking in that it heralded an approach to building now known as the Gothic style. Although some of its features, such as the cross-rib vaulting and the flying buttresses. had been incorporated in prior churches, they were here all combined into an stylistic statement integrated with sharply pointed spires, rose window, clustered columns, pointed arches. cross-rib vaulting, and stress on luminosity. Europe I 397 Chartres cathedral Among the various aspects of architecture that changed during this period was the emergence oftheinteriorelevationofthe nave as an architectural unit in its own right. with architects seeking to balance the interplay of horizontal and vertical elements. At Notre Dame in Paris (1163-1250). there are four discrete horizontal levels—the ground-level arcade. over which run two galleries. called the tribune and the triioriurn. overwhich ran an uppmvvindowed storyor clerestory. The windows of these cathedrals were. of course. not transparent but filled with stained glass. bringing into the interior a muted. shimmering light. At first the flying buttress was a pure structural necessity, as at Saint-Germain-dos-Prés where they were added for reinforcement around 1180, but they were soon integrated into the design from the start. Some buttresses. as at Lincoln Cathedral Chapter House (1230—50), stand well back from the outer wall, but most were integrated into the outer sidewalls. The flying buttresses consist of a tower that supplies the necessary counterweight and an arch that transfers the lateral loads to the tower. Due to the flying buttresses, the interior of the church became uncluttered and emerged as a spatial unit. Nonetheless. the flying buttress sacnfrced' the legibility of the eutenor‘ for the inmrlor. leading to the problem cfl‘rmtointegrate itatthe planning stage of the buildlng. 398 I Europe 12.43 Chum m. Lincoln WWI. England The epitome of the new style was Chartres Cathedral (1194-1220). where the nave on the outside is almost completely obscured behind an intimate tangle of buttresses. The interior. on the other hand, is almost canyonllke. The nave elevation has only three levels, permitting a strong vertical extension of the bays To compensate for the added height two flying buttresses. one over the other. bringtheload tometmuer. Thevauits. another important Gothic element. were ' composed of stone ribs with thin brick vaults between them that seem to be stretched like taut skin. 12.45 Plowman-.mfm " - Milne Wuhfrlnce 'i . » nonlethal at Bourges (1195—1214). :1 begun only one year after Chartres, . " a slightly different model. Unlike if; . a with ils clutter of buttresses. the 35% s I I to the Steep slope 0f the m. along with the absence of a bansept. e the bodyofthenavetoread asa “*4 form. The round chevetat the end in three stages with small high-peaked ;- i- t seemingiy suspended between abuttress piers. The interior is not as f»: - itects were more conservative than - . following the Chartres model averticalily is further enhanced by the .7 : ... of the crossing piers into the design of the inner facade. The 1... 'on of four lights at Amiens in clerestory, in preference to the __ two. further adds to the impression .. in lity. Its tall nave arches and tall am windows fuse the approaches . i. and Bourges, while preserving ‘ extent the unity of the nave. The : interior is set of? against the delicate -~' ofthe chaser. ::.}' of buttresses at Bourges was made to _;i a like as the nave at Chartres, because 'fhll arches create the illusion that the wall : side aisle is the actual side of the nave. development of the Gothic style was far linear. At Amiens Cathedral (1220—35) _,i - calmer interior and soaring verticality. O 12.4? Plan: Milne Will The new spatial idea was taken up by the architect of Le Mans Cathedral (the chevet was built 1217—1254). who extended the reach of the buttresses and extruded the chapels from between the bottoms of the buttresses. They appear as a collection of minichurches nestled next to the church itself. All of this was set off against the vigorous form of the transept The aspiration for verticality occasionally led engineers to go beyond the limit of safety. When the vaults of the gigantic Beauvais Cathedral collapsed in 1284, the building had to remain incomplete. 12noGE Whereas Romanesque churches had round columns in the nave, Gothic churches, from Speyer onward. began to have columns that were composed of a columnar core with coionettes attached to it. The colonett‘es facing the nave continue upward to reach all thewaytothe vault, whereasthe colonettes on the inside become part of the ribs of the vaults in the side aisles. As a result. Gothic supports were neither columns nor piers; rather they were columnar bundles working not only in the vertical dimension but also in plan as theywould seem to be squares rotated 45 degrees. creating diagonal vistas through the building. 12.48 Heli-ssctiur: item at Milan: and Bonus: mt: Europe I 399 ...
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Ching 1C - ,n 7 WIPE THE HIGH MIDDLE AGES ‘ l span of...

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