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Module1C - Edited by Harry Francis Mullgruve Blackwell...

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Unformatted text preview: Edited by Harry Francis Mullgruve ( Blackwell , Publishing 25 And there were made on them. on the doors of the temple cher—u-bim and palm trees, like as were made upon the walls; and there were thick planks upon the face of the porch without. 26 And there were narrow windowsand palm trees on the one side and on the other side. on the sides of the porch, and upon the side chambers of the house, and thick planks. 7 NEW TESTAMENT from The Revelation of Jesus Christ to Saint John (c.95 AD) hebooltolRevelufim,nlsoklmmusfluApocdypse,istl|elusthooklnlmeheenimorpomleditlo flemmolihelleeslumuflJiisuwkofpmpheq,mdllnmthoridenlifieshimselfuslohn. Brierhiblicdsdidusmepledlhmlnmflnupuslhlohthutmemmfldudfipmthmh wastPlhsfiinnfllfisfimmfinflodfluoexihuherfinfimlwishRevollogdmllhellolminbb-Hw. linkemlafionspealslolhekmnmpemcmionoffirisfims,hulmoreviviclylolhesetondtuningoffllriston thedayoftheLasHudgmentTmrdsheendofMahammfinglhedeleulolSatholmmotdshis visionoflhememhmfllhemlermnlem.fl1ewlierludtfittrndfionofmologymdsymboisn here takes on u dislintl Chrislinn cast The Revelafim would become enormously influential during the Guislicm MiddleAges. Chapter 21 The new heaven and the new earth And I saw a new heaven and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first earth were passed away; and there was no more sea. 2 And Tjohn saw the holy city, newjerusalem, coming down fi‘om God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. 3 And I heard a great voice out of heaven saying, Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and he will dwell with them, and they shall be his people. and God himself shall be with them, and be their God. 4 And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes; and there shall be no more death. neither sorrow, nor crying. neither shall there be any more pain: for the former things are passed away. 5 And he that sat upon the throne said, Behold, I make all things new. And he said unto me, Write: for these words are true and faithful utm,mmmemm»mmms»tlemhmmmduHume 20 NEW TESTAMENT, REVEM THIN 6 And he said unto me, It is done. I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end. I will give mm hjm that is athirst of the fountain of the water of life freely. 7 He that overcometh shall inherit all things; and I will be his God, and he shall be my son. 3 But the fearful, and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers, and whore- mongfl-s, and sorcerers, and idolaters, and all liars, shall have their part in the lake which burnBT-h with fire and brimstone: which is the second death. The new jmsalem 9 And there came unto me one of the seven angels which had the seven vials full of the seven last plagues, and talked with me, saying, Come hither, I will show thee the bride, the Lamb’5 wife. 10 And he carried me away in the spirit to a great and high mountain, and showed me that great city, the holy jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God, 11 Having the glory of God: and her light was like unto a stone most precious, even like a jasper stone, clear as crystal; 12 And had a wall great and high, and had twelve gates, and at the gates twelve angels, and names written thereon, which are the names of the twelve tribes of the children of lsrael: 13 On the east three gates; on the north three gates; on the south three gates; and on the west three gates. 14 And the wall of the city had twelve foundations, and in them the names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb. 15 And he that talked with me had a golden reed to measure the city, and the gates thereof, and the wall thereof. 16 And the city lieth foursquare, and the length is as large as the breadth: and he measured the city with the reed, twelve thousand furlongs. The length and the breadth and the height of it are equal. 17 And he measured the wall thereof, a hundred and forty and four cubits, according to the measure of man, that is, of the angel. 18 And the building of the wall of it was afjasper: and the city was pure gold, like unto clear glass. 19 And the foundations of the wall of the city were garnished with all manner of precious stones. The first foundation was jasper; the second, sapphire; the third, a chalced‘ ony; the fourth, an emerald; 20 The fifth. sardonyx; the sixth, sardius; the seventh, chrysolite; the eighth, beryl; the ninth, a topaz; the tenth, a chrysoprasus; the eleventh. a jacinth; the twelfth. an amethyst. 21 And the twelve gates were twelve pearls; every several gate was of one pearl: and the street of the city was pure gold, as it were transparent glass. 22 And i saw no temple therein: for the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are the temple of it. 23 And the city had no need of the sun, neither of the moon, to shine in it: for the glory of God did lighten it, and the Lamb is the light thereof. NEW TESTAMENT, REVELATION 2| 24 And the nations of them which are saved shall walk in the light of it: and the kings of the earth do bring their glory and honor into it. 25 And the gates of it shall not be shut at all by day: for there shall be no night there. 26 And they shall bring the glory and honor of the nations into it. 27 And there shall in no wise enter into it any thing that defileth, neither whatsoever worketh abomination, or maketli a lie: but they which are written in the Lamb’s book of life. 8 AB 8 0T 5 U G ER from The Boole of Sager, Abbot of Saint—Denis (c.1144) he onetime village of Saint—Denis (now a part of Paris) holds a particularly important place within udiitectural history because it is the birthplace of Bothic architecture. lhe rehu'lling al this Carolingian pigrinoge church (originally (unaided in the late eighth century) is owed to the ellorts oi Abbot Sugar (lllfll—ll5l). The churdi was a shrine to the spiritual apostle of France, and (or this reason Grmlemagne and his son Pepin, eslobishing a precedent, were crowned there as kings. It was because of this dual religious and pohtical significance that Sager, a childiaod friend at Lou's VI, sought to enhance both his friend’s political staiding (royal powerin Frmceattliistimewassecmdtothatolnoblesland theauthorityolthedwrrdl byerdugingtheexisting dibey church. the important work of building the new narthex on the western front, containing the first rose window, and the enlarged Gothic chair on the eastern end were largely carried out between ((37 and the church's Medication in Hit. The dtoir in particular is a masterpiece of structural innovation. With the removal of the traditiomd wafls separating chair chapels in Romanesque churches, Sager and his (unknown) master mason, devising seven radial chapels, created a double ambulatory oi pointed arches and vaults supported on slender columns (with quasi—classical capitals), and reinforced the delicacy of the stonework with piers and flying buttresses outside. llie curved outside walls of the chapels thus became walls of glu, introducing both abundant light and extreme visual lightness. lhe new structural solution even achieved the status of a “miracle" when, during construction, a violent storm destroyed many suaounrhng buildings but left the rib work for the new vaults intact. lhese passages from Suger's arnwsara or concurrent cranium norm: relate to the conception and planning of the all-impartam choir. “to importance of geometry and proportions are made evident, as is some of the basic symbolism of the church. Having thus deliberated with our very devoted brothers — ”Did riot our heart bum within us, while he talked with us by the way” — we decided upon deliberation under God's inspiration.. .to respect the stones themselves, sanctified in this way as much as relics. We endeavored to apply ourselves to ennoble this muchlneeded new [choir] through the beauty of the length and width. Upon reflection. we thus decided to replace the vault, unequal to the higher one that covered the apse containing the bodies of our Patron Saints, AbbatSugorlclIl-ilSi),from ileloolrofSagecAbbaoffiiaflonfilclmlmansflaiaiacomdriowdmhunlhefiwdinudaamof (inlatiileirl,oduvltmns.Hancoisefimparfi,iilesflmsiurdel'hrshiedefimtd.l.hislelleslames,l”6,m25—39.|lepmrhmd haem'nsim. 12 ”HOT SHEER, ”if BOOK OF SHEER down to the upper level of the crypt, to which it was connected. In this way, a single crypt would offer its top as a pavement to those arriving by the stairs on both sides, and it would allGW the visitors on the upper level a view of the relics of saints adorned with gold and stone. With perspicacity and with the help of geometrical and arithmetical tools, we also endeavored to make the center of the old church coincide with the center of the new comm-“do“ by superimposing the upper columns and median arches over those that were built in me crypt; [we managed] also to adapt the proportions of the ancient side aisles to the new ones — except for that remarkable and elegant addition yielding a crown of chapels, because of which the entire [church] would brilliantly shine with the remarkable and unimfl-rupted light of the dazzling windows illuminating the interior beauty. '[I'hI-I: at great expense. and thanks to so many workers, we applied ourselves for three years, summer and winter, to the completion of this work. . . In the center [of the building] twelve columns represented the group of twelve Apostles. The second grOup of the columns represented the same number of prophets in the ambulatory, which suddenly projected the building to another size, according to the Apostle who built spiritually: “Now therqbrc,” he said. "ye are no more strangers and fireigners, but fellow citizens with the saints, and of the household of God. And are built upon thefbundatiou of the apostles and prophets, jesus Christ himself being the chief cornerstone; in whom all the building fitly flamed together groweth new a holy temple in the Lord." In Him, we too applied ourselves to build an edifice materially as tall and with as much fitness as we could, by us spiritually [to become] the house of God in the Holy Spirit. [...] Here is an event we have thought should not be passed over in silence. When work on the new addition with its capitals and upper arches was reaching the summit of its height, but when the independently constructed main arches were not yet connected to the mass of the vaults, there suddenly arose a terrible, almost intolerable storm. It had accumulations of clouds, pouring rain, and very violent winds, which were severe to the point of shaking not only robust houses but also stone towers and timber donjons. During this storm, on the anniversary of the glorious king Dagobert, the venerable bishop Charles Geofl'roy was solemnly celebrating a Mass of thanksgiving at the main altar before the community for the soul of this king. The violence of the opposing winds pushed so hard against these arches, which were not supported by any scaffolding or braced by any prop, that they miserably trembled and oscillated from side to side in such a way that they threatened to fall abruptly into ruin beyond repair. Frightened by the shaking of these arches and roofing, the Bishop frequently extended his hand in that direction in a sign of benediction, and presented with insistence the arm of the old [St] Simeon, while making the sign of the cross. Thus it became very clear that the collapse [of the construction] was avoided not because of its own strength but only because of God's goodness and the glory of the Saints. Whereas in many places the tempest had caused great damage to many well-built buildings, the storm, held in check by divine force, inflicted no damage at all on these isolated, newly constructed arches tottering in the air. precious ABIOI SHEER, THE FOUR 0F SHEER 23 9 WILLIAM DURANDUS from The Symbolism of Churches and Church Ornaments (1286) ilham Durandus was a preeminent theorist of cation law in high Gothic times. Barn in French Provence, he litst studied lavr at Bologna helare teaching canon lavr at Madena. He was next summoned to llorne by Clement W, ordained, and given the titular tanonries at Beauvais and (hartres As the secretary to Gregory X, he accompanied him to the Second Council at [vans in 1274 and later defended papal territories with armies agra'nst the Guelphs and Ghihelines. This defense led to his promotion rs Bishop of Meade in I286. Dtnandas’s Rationale divinorurn offio‘urum vras qiparemly complete in this year, and this treatise of eight books is still today seen as the most complete authority for thirteenth-century liturgical rites and their symbatism. Book I, vrhidrin lfl3wstransiatedas llreSyrnbolisrnofGrurdresandflwrdr Ornaments, deakwiththesymholismalthe church itself mil its rations parts, and it is evident ham this extraordinary excerpt that every ardtitectural component at a Gothic church had its specific meaning or message for the warshhpers. 2.4. The glass windows in a church are Holy Scriptures, which expel the wind and the rain, that is all things hurtful, but transmit the light of the true Sun, that is, God, into the hearts of the faithful. These are wider within than without. because the mystical sense is the more ample, and precedeth the literal meaning. Also, by the windows the senses of the body are signified: which ought to be shut to the vanities of this world, and open to receive with all freedom spiritual gifts. 25. By the lattice work of die windows, we understand the prophets or other obscure teachers of the Church Militant: in wln'ch windows there are often two shafts. signifying the two precepts of charity, or because the apostles were sent out to preach two and two. 26. The door of the church is Christ: according to the saying in the Gospel, ”1 am the door.“ The apostles are also called doors. 27. The piers of the church are bishops and doctors: who specially sustain the Church of God by their doctrine. These, from the majesty and clearness of their divine message, are called silver, according to that in the Song of Songs. “He made silver columns.” Whence also Moses at the entering in of the tabernacle, placed five columns, and four before the made. that is, the holy of holies. Although the piers are more in number than seven, yet they are called seven, according to that saying. “Wisdom hath builded her house, she hath hewn out her seven pillars": because bishops ought to be filled with the sevenfold influences of the Holy Ghost: and SS. james and John, as the Apostle testifieth, "seemed to be pillars." The bases of the columns are the apostolic bishops. who support the frame of the whole church. The Capitals of the piers are the opinions of the bishops and doctors. For as the members are directed and moved by the head, so are our words and works governed by their mind The ornaments of the capitals are the words of Sacred Scripture, to the meditation and obser- vance of Which we are bound. mmflMHN—NLMmfimmllmlmfldhlMSaslhISyatltolismaffltrnlresandfluthflrm lhepaaageusedhuekhnmdndidedilianllnflucfifilpsifitJMLW-Ifl—z 24 DIlllAllDlIS, SYMWUSM 0F (HURCHES 28. The pavement of the church is the foundation of our faith. But in the spiritual church, the pavement is the poor of Christ: the poor in spirit, who humble themselves in all thingsi Wherefore on account of their humility they are likened to the pavement. Again, which is madden under foot, representeth the multitude, by whose labors the church is sustained. 29. The beams which join together the church are the princes of this world or the preachers who defend the unity of the Church, the one by deed. the other by argument IURAIIDUS, SYMBDUSM 0F {HUMHES 25 ...
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