Module1D_MedievalUrbanism

Module1D_MedievalUrbanism - M o d u le 1 D : M e d ie v a l...

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Module 1D: Medieval Urbanism in Europe
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Lecture 4 Outline I. European cities after the fall of Rome II. Siena and civic government A. The Palazzo Publico and the Piazza del Campo B. Siena Cathedral III. Florence A. Religious sites: Santa Croce B. Civic sites • Piazza della Signoria and the Palazzo Vecchio • Bargello • Orsanmichele IV. Lubeck V. Bruges VI. Monpazier: a bastide
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Study Questions 1. What were the regional characteristics of Gothic architecture in Italy? Compare Italy with England and/or France. 2. What were the important new political and social characteristics of medieval cities such as Siena, Florence, Bruges, Monpazier and Lubeck? 3. What were some of the important building types in medieval cities? How were they related to economic, political and social developments? 4. What is a bastide? What were the motivations for founding a bastide? What drew people to a bastide?
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I. European cities after the fall of Rome Rome founded many cities throughout the Mediterranean, linking them by land and sea.
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After the fall of the Roman Empire in 476 Law and order decline Trade (especially long-distance trade) decreases Agricultural efficiency declines Church questions worldly matters such as trade
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Feudalism after the fall of the Roman Empire Agrarian system based on personal relationship of vassal to lord. Land owned by lord, granted to vassals, worked by peasants. Little mobility, no cash economy. Relatively little long-distance trade.
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Some Characteristics of Medieval Urbanism • Conflict and negotiation among various parties, including Church, nobility, merchants. • Complex arrangement of public spaces, reflecting the above situation. • Privileged political status of cities and their citizens. There is no single medieval urban model across Europe, but many cities that flourish during the era show certain basic developments: • Development of an urban middle class (bourgeoisie). In the 11th century, relative order is achieved across Europe, and long- distance trade begins to revive. Trade and prosperity are tied to a boom in building: bridges, roads, castles, even whole cities.
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The Rise of the Commune The commune is a new type of political entity that first appears in northern Italy. The commune is a collective entity that begins with a group of city-dwellers (burghers) who ally for tasks such as defense, trade regulation, taxation, law, etc. Commune characterized by: - regular, permanent body of citizens to act as executive for citizens - gradual acquisition of power from Church and other holders of power - acquisition of rights outside the city - development of relations with other communes
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Europe in 1173
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II. Siena, Italy Study question: What were the important new political and social characteristics of
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Module1D_MedievalUrbanism - M o d u le 1 D : M e d ie v a l...

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