Module3B_Asia1

Module3B_Asia1 - Module 3B: Asia 1  Southeast Asia and...

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Unformatted text preview: Module 3B: Asia 1  Southeast Asia and China Module 3B Outline I. Buddhism and Borobudur II. The Angkor Kingdom A. Angkor Wat B. Angkor Thom III. China A. Great Wall B. Chinese Cities and Beijing C. Chinese Construction D. Forbidden City E. Ming Tombs F. Temple of Heaven Southeast Asia I. Buddhism and Borobudur Sakyamuni: common name used for the historical Buddha (6th c. BCE). Samsara: cycle of rebirth. Karma: law of action and consequence. Dharma: the Buddhist law of the cosmos. Nirvana: enlightenment. Four Noble Truths: doctrine expounded in the first sermon of the Buddha. Hinayana: “lesser vehicle”; refers to older forms of Buddhism. Mahayana: “greater vehicle”; refers to complex forms of Buddhism that arise beginning in 1st c. BCE. Bodhisattva: a figure who has delayed the realization of nirvana in order to assist other people; a future Buddha. Spread of Buddhism Borobudur. Java (760-830).� Study question: What are the meanings of Borobudur? Largest Buddhist monument in world. In general, represents Buddhist cosmos as seen in 8th century. Multiple meanings: “world mountain”; mandala; stupa; pilgrimage site. Great Stupa, Sanchi, India (1st century BCE). Borobudur. Java (760-830). Borobudur. Java (760-830).� Pilgrims view relief sculptures on square galleries as they rise from world of desire to the sacred realm. Ultimate destination of spiritual journey is nirvana. Borobudur. Java (760-830).� First gallery (shown below) depicts tales from the lives of the Buddha. Third gallery (left) and fourth gallery, Borobudur. Java (760-830). Galleries from 2nd to 4th level tell story of a pilgrim’s search for enlightenment. Circular gallery, Borobudur. Java (760-830). View of statue inside stupa (left) and central stupa. Borobudur. Java (760-830). II. The Angkor Kingdom� Angkor Area, Siem Reap, Cambodia� Study questions: How can Angkor Wat and Angkor Thom be seen as microcosms? What elements or strategies are used to convey meaning? Angkor Area, Siem Reap, Cambodia Angkor Wat is 8; Angkor Thom is large square with 5 at center.� Shaded areas are artificial reservoirs and canals that hold religious and utilitarian meanings. II.A. Angkor Wat. Siem Reap, Cambodia (1126-1150).� Dedicated to Hindu god Vishnu (religion of the Khmer kingdom is blend of Hinduism and Buddhism). Idea of cosmic mountain. Also astronomical orientation. Angkor Wat. Siem Reap, Cambodia (1126-1150).� Concentric enclosures with taller, denser buildings at center represent idea of the world (or cosmic) mountain. Entrance from west towards central compound. Angkor Wat. Siem Reap, Cambodia (1126-1150).� Front elevation, central tower and section. Angkor Wat. Siem Reap, Cambodia (1126-1150).� View from central tower; statue of Vishnu. Angkor Wat. Siem Reap, Cambodia (1126-1150). Churning of the Sea of Milk, Angkor Wat.� Galleries of Angkor Wat are covered by narrative reliefs drawn from sacred texts. Here Vishnu directs the churning of the sea of milk as devas (gods) and asuras (demons) use a naga, or serpent, to produce the elixir of immortality. Churning of the Sea of Milk, Angkor Wat.� II.B. Angkor Thom. � New city/district founded by Jayavarman VII to provide religious protection for the Khmer capital. Causeway and gate, Angkor Thom. Siem Reap, Cambodia (1181-1218)� Statues of railing may represent churning of the sea of milk or rainbow linking human and divine worlds. Bayon Temple, Angkor Thom. Siem Reap, Cambodia (1181-1218)� Layout related to ideas of cosmic mountain and sacred diagrams. Bayon Temple, Angkor Thom. Siem Reap, Cambodia (1181-1218)� Bayon Temple, Angkor Thom. Siem Reap, Cambodia (1181-1218)� Colossal faces depict bodhisattvas, Buddhist entities that assist in the journey to enlightenment. Relief sculpture, Bayon Temple, Angkor Thom. Siem Reap, Cambodia (1181-1218)� Relief sculpture lines walls as at Angkor Wat, but here most scenes are of battles and everyday life rather than religious subjects. Central sanctuary, Bayon Temple, Angkor Thom. Siem Reap, Cambodia (1181-1218) As at Angkor Thom, overall composition and central temple represent the cosmic mountain. Statue of Jayavarman VII found in central chamber. III. China Ming Dynasty Qing Dynasty 1368-1644 1644-1910 III.A. Great Wall (mainly Ming Dynasty). China. Great Wall is begun as early as 3rd century BCE, but current wall dates to Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). Great Wall (mainly Ming Dynasty). China. How to address the threat of the Mongols? Great Wall is an expensive strategy. Great Wall near Beijing (left) and  at western terminus at Jiayuguan(right). III.B. Chinese Cities Ideal City based on Zhou Li (Rites of Zhou Dynasty). China (ca. 500 BCE).� Study question: How are Chinese cities and buildings related to ideas about earth and heaven? What are the basic spatial and architectural strategies and elements used to create relationships to broader ideas and worlds? Capital city seen as reflection of heavenly order: heaven as round, earth as square. Compare with medieval European cities. Plan of Beijing during Ming Dynasty Last major example of long history of Chinese capital cities based on city wall, orthogonal grid, hierarchy of functions, and separation of imperial quarter. Typical Beijing courtyard house� III.C. Chinese Construction: Dougong Monumental Chinese architecture is based on a timber frame with complex bracketing that is both structural and ornamental. The bracket system is called dougong. Greek Doric and Ionic orders The Greek orders are systems of both structure and ornament. Each order consists of a column plus entablature. Gothic Space and Structure Examples of Chinese post-and-lintel buildings with bracketing III.D. Forbidden City, Beijing (Ming and Qing Dynasties). Forbidden City houses administrative, ritual, and residential buildings for the emperor. "To govern by virtue, let us compare it to the North Star: it stays in its place, while the myriad stars wait upon it." (Analects of Confucius II, 1) Forbidden City, Beijing (Ming and Qing Dynasties).� Order of the Forbidden City can be seen in relation to the Chinese city and cosmos. Meridian Gate, Forbidden City� Forbidden City� Forbidden City� Hall of Supreme Harmony, Forbidden City. Beijing (originally constructed 1421).� Hall of Supreme Harmony used for major rituals, houses emperor’s throne. Hall of Supreme Harmony, Forbidden City. Beijing (originally constructed 1421).� III.E. Ming Tombs. Near Beijing, China (Ming Dynasty).� Thirteen tombs built for Ming emperors. Shendao (spirit path) has ceremonial gate, flanking pairs of animals and officials, five-entry gate, other elements terminating in gatehouse. Tombs have sacrificial hall, spirit tower, and tumulus. Importance of Feng Shui for siting. Five-portal marble gate at beginning of spirit way (left) and Stele Pavilion Ming Tombs. Near Beijing, China (Ming Dynasty). Spirit Path, Ming Tombs. Near Beijing, China (Ming Dynasty).� 24 pairs of animals, 12 pairs of officials. Tomb of Emperor Shenzong, Ming Tombs. Near Beijing (1584-90). Underground chambers, Tomb of Emperor Shenzong, Ming Tombs.  Near Beijing (1584-90). Note spatial similarity to other types of Chinese architecture and planning. III.F. Temple of Heaven. Beijing (15th-19th centuries).� Temple of Heaven is the major ritual site within Beijing. Circles and squares representing heaven and earth. Numerology: number 9 repeated in buildings. Hall of Prayer for a Prosperous Year (formerly Great Sacrifice Hall).  Temple of Heaven. Beijing (15th-19th centuries).� This building is used for the most important ceremonies that link the Middle Kingdom with the heavens. Hall of Prayer for a Prosperous Year (formerly Great Sacrifice Hall).  Temple of Heaven. Beijing (15th-19th centuries).� Hall of Prayer for a Prosperous Year and St. Peter’s in Rome� Domes as common representations of the heavens. Hall of Prayer for a Prosperous Year and Selim Mosque. Edirne, Turkey (1569-75). See you on Thursday for More China + Japan ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/10/2010 for the course ARCH 218 taught by Professor Choi during the Spring '10 term at Cal Poly.

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