CloseRelationshipsNotes.pdf - Close Relationships Notes...

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Close Relationships Notes -Attachment Theory basic concepts: attachment security, safe haven, secure base, attachment styles Attachment security: the degree to which individuals believe they can trust or rely on their attachment figures to provide physical and/or emotional support Save Haven & Secure Base: provides comfort and safety when needed; allows for exploration of the world and seeking out new experiences Internal working model: “operable” model of self and attachment partner -based on relationship history; self as worthy vs. unworthy of love, other as reliable vs. unreliable; generally stable but can be changed over time -Used to regulate, interpret, and predict relationship relevant behavior of the self and partner human nature to seek out others Attachment styles: -based on 2 questions: -Am I lovable? -Is my attachment figure reliable? -secure, anxious, avoidant/dismissing -Need to belong all human beings have a “need to belong” quality not quantity can influence health and well-being evolved adaptive behavior -Social Exchange Theory: people enter into and stay in (or leave) relationships because of rewards and costs relationship expectations (comparison level) 1
attractiveness of available alternatives (comparison level for alternatives) The satisfaction and stability of relationships can be viewed as an economic exchange -Basic Assumptions Rationality: people engage in calculation of rewards, costs, and alternatives before acting—relationships involve a process of determining the least costly action Salience: the relative importance of costs, rewards, and outcomes influences a person’s behavior—salience of a reward depends on its significance to that person in that situation; can change over time Subjectivity: relationship decisions are based on the perception of the individual—may not be accurate, but it’s what they believe -Concepts & Definitions Outcome = Rewards — Costs Rewards: gratifying experiences and/or commodities that we receive in a relationship Costs: punishing or undesirable experiences Outcomes: out net profit or loss in a situation Comparison Level (CL): our personal expectations about the outcomes we deserve in our dealings with another individual our past experiences influence current CL Satisfaction = Outcomes — CL Comparison Level for Alternatives (CLalt): the outcomes you could receive by leaving your relationship and moving to the best alternative partnership or situation -also the lowest level of outcome we will tolerate from current relationship situation -CLalt describes the stability of the relationship -Relationship Stability in addition to satisfaction and CLalt… 2
Dependence: degree to which a person believes they are reliant on others for outcomes—barriers to dissolution (ex: having a kid together, abuse), relationship investments (ex: sharing a house) dependence is a strong reason for chronic grief conditions associated with loss/bereavement -Why learn about research methods?

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