Political_Science_164A_-_Fall_1992_-_Stoker_-_Final -...

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Unformatted text preview: 10/21/2002 MON 17:54 FAX 6434330 MOFFITT LIBRARY 001 Final Examination Fall, 1992 PS 1643 Political Psychology I. Essa -- Answer two of the following four questions (25 points each) 1. Political socialization scholars have linked individual—level arguments about change in political views and behaviors throughout the life-span with aggregate arguments about changes taking place overall in society. Write an essay that discuss these arguments and linkages, providing examples. 2. Imagine that a researcher studying the attitude-behavior relationship conducted the following study. 50 UC-Berkeiey students from P8164a were randomly assigned into one of two groups (25 per group): GROUP A: These students first listened to a balanced presentation about the issues underlying the graduate student strike. Then they were asked to respond anonymously to a questionnaire which included, among other things, a question tapping their attitude toward the graduate students’ position (on a scale ranging from 0 = not at all supportive to 100 = extremely supportive). GROUP B: These students, and a group of 15 student~confederates (students secretly working as part of the research team), first listened to a balanced presentation about the issues underlying the graduate student strike. Then the students were asked to indicate their support for the graduate students’ position aloud, by choosing a number between 0 (= not at all supportive) and 100 (= extremely supportive). The order in which they were asked to respond was allegedly given by a computerized list of the students arranged in no particular order. In fact, the 15 confederates were the first 15 people named. Each of these student-confederates indicated very strong support by selecting numbers in the region of 92-100 on the scale. Each of the 50 students was later given a postcard by graduate students, and asked to write a message to the Chancellor indicating his or her support for the graduate student’ position. Some of the students ultimately did so, others did not. (A large proportion of UC-B undergraduate students were approached in this way so that the experimental subjects did not suspect that their behavior was a part of the experimental inquiry.) The researcher hypothesized that attitudinal support for the strike would be higher in group B than in Group A. The findings were supportive: the average support score was 87.8 for the 25 subjects in group B, and 72.1 for the 25 subjects in Group A. She also hypothesized that the relationship between the attitudes people expressed (on the 0-100 scale) and their behavior (whether or not they sent in the postcard) would be weaker in group B than in group A. This hypothesis too was supported: whether or not the students in group B sent in the postcard was poorly predicted by the attitude they had previously indicated aloud in the experimental session. The attitude-behavior relationship was much stronger for the students in group A. Put yourself in the place of the researcher: Lay out the arguments from work on social influence processes and on the functions of attitudes that justify these hypotheses and that can explain these findings. 10/21/2002 MON 17:55 FAX 6434330 MOFFITT LIBRARY 002 3. In his experiments, Milgram finds that shock voltage levels were lowered when: a. Subject and experimenter proximity decreased. b. Subject and victim proximity increased. c. Authority was divided. d. Confederates disobeyed. 6. Subjects were free to select their own voltage levels. Write an essay that explains these results by relying on the political psychological concepts and theories we have discussed in this class, and that provides examples of the political implications of these findings. Organize your essay however you see fit; you will probably not want to simply address them in a to "e" order. 4. Personality and learning arguments offer different ways of understanding many political phenomena, including the development of gender identity, the development of political tolerance, and the development of stereotypes of out—groups. Drawing on two of these three examples in illustration, write an essay that addresses the differences in the way personality and learning theories explain political views and behavior. II. Short Answer -- Answer one of the following three questions (15 points) 1. Pollsters noted that George Bush’s approval ratings rose dramatically after the 13.8. military forces began bombing Iraqi military sites in the Gulf War. How might a political psychologist account for this increase? 2. Political psychologists have theorized about the relationship between degree of political involvement and the likelihood of attitude change in response to persuasive messages. Describe these theoretical expectations, being careful to note the conditions (pertaining both to the message and to the recipient) under which they apply. Include a graphical illustration in your answer. 3. Writing on decision-making, two political psychologists reported the following: "[Fjlight instructors . . . were urged to reward good performances rather than punish bad ones. The instructors objected arguing that, in their experience, praising an exceptionally good performance usually led to worse performance on the next flight, whereas criticizing a bad flight usually led to improvement on the next flight." Discuss the instructors’ objection and the attribution error which it reveals. III. Identification -- Define and identify the significance of seven of the following (5 points each) issue-attention cycle actor—observer differences in attribution status deference classical conditioning the illusion of unanimity priming id person schemas in-group favoritism 10. "content controlled" measure of political tolerance Peseeeew— ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/10/2010 for the course PS 164a taught by Professor Davidrobinson during the Spring '97 term at Berkeley.

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