IB 144 MT2 key


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IB 144/PSYCH 115B: ANIMAL BEHAVIOR MIDTERM EXAM 2, OCTOBER 23 2009 Full Name: ___________________________________________ SID#____________________ Remember to read the questions fully and carefully, THINK and then select the best answer. There are 75 total points for this exam. Your score will be adjusted to %. 1) ( 5 points ) Consider this excerpt from abstract (summary) of a paper published in the Journal of Early Human Development in 2007 by Tanya Button at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Based on what you know from lecture, choose the MOST appropriate answer to finish the last sentence. The relationship of maternal smoking to psychological problems in the offspring. There is strong evidence for an association between maternal smoking in pregnancy and psychological problems in offspring. The problems most frequently associated are attention problems, hyperactivity, and conduct problems, although there is some evidence for an association with substance use problems as well. The nature of this association is unclear, but it is likely the result of ………” a)  The interdependent action of both heredity and environment. b)  Modification of behavior during early life. c)  Modification of instinctive behavior during early life. d)  Smoking harming the fetus. e)  A critical period for DNA methylation. 2) ( 2 points ) An epigenetic effect is what? a) Gene activation or silencing b) A change in the genetic code c) Gene mutation d) Only induced during a critical period of development
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3) ( 4 points ) Monozygous (MZ) twins share a common genotype. However, most monozygotic twin pairs are not identical; several types of phenotypic discordance may be observed, such as differences in susceptibilities to disease and a wide range of behavioral features. There are several possible explanations for these observations, but one is the existence of epigenetic differences (for example, differences in DNA methylation). To address this issue, the authors of a study published in 2009 examined the brains of a pair of twins. One was diagnosed as having Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and the other was neurologically normal (ND). The AD twin was a white male chemical engineer who had extensive pesticide contact in his work. He developed AD symptoms at age 60, first manifest as the inability to read maps, followed by progressive loss of memory and intellect over 16 years until his death at age 76. His identical twin, also a chemical engineer with an identical education but different work environment, died at 79 years from prostate cancer. At the time of his death, he was cognitively intact. Their brains were then removed and studied. The figure above shows the amount of labeling of two different brain regions (Layers II and III) in the ND twin and the AD twin, using a marker for DNA methylation. The label sends out a fluorescent signal when it tags methylated sites, indicating where DNA methylation has occurred. Based on the data above, what did these authors find?
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This note was uploaded on 02/11/2010 for the course IB Animal Beh taught by Professor Lacey during the Fall '09 term at Berkeley.

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