10-29-09 - Infectious Diseases picture Prof Ricki Bialstock...

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Unformatted text preview: Infectious Diseases picture Prof. Ricki Bialstock AHS 151 Pathogen – Any virus, microorganism or other substance causing disease Virulence – The relative ability of a pathogen to cause disease. – How strong the pathogen is Infection – Invasion of the body with organisms that have the potential to cause disease Medical Intervention – Before 1950- limited interventions available for infection – 1950-1980 – decreased mortality from infection. In the US, elimination of typhus, cholera, malaria, yellow fever and others – Organized vaccination efforts – everyone had to get vaccines; like for polio, tetanus, etc – 1970s- new infection appear (AIDS ) – 1980s- increase in multidrug-resistant organisms – bacteria become resistant to to many medications (antibiotics) and it’s harder to treat the infections and it becomes more contagious Defense Against Pathogens – Immune System- 3 Lines of defense – Skin/mucosa (physical barrier) – skin is a barrier to infects; Ex: if get E. coli on hands, you won’t get an infection, but if you then have a cut or put it in your mouth, you will get sick; Prevention – wash hands – Inflammatory process – heat from inflammation helps kill the bacteria – Immune system response – inflammatory cells fight infection Types of Infection – Bacteria – Unicellular prokaryotic(without nucleus) microorganism – Classified according to shape – Cocci – round – Bacilli – rod-shaped – Spirochete – spiral-shaped Bacterial Classification – Shape – Response to staining (gram + or -, acid fast) – Motility – how they move – Encapsulation – Need for oxygen – aerobic (use oxygen) or anaerobic ( don’t use oxygen) Types of Infection – Virus – A pathogen made of nucleic acid inside a protein shell – Can only grow or reproduce after infecting a host cell – can’t grow on their own; need a host – Over 400 viruses affect humans – Not susceptible to antibiotics – can’t be treated with antibiotics – need antiviral medication – Ex: flu virus Types of Infection – Mycoplasma – A type of bacteria that lacks a cell wall, causes mycoplasma pneumonia – See this infection in AIDS patients when the immune system is diminished ( not working well) Types of Infection – Rickettsiae – Type of bacteria carried by insects such as ticks or fleas – Must be in living cells to reproduce – Cause Typhus and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever – Types of Infection – Chlamydiae – Smaller than bacteria but larger than virus – Need host cells to live – Contain DNA and RNA – Respond well to antibiotics – Ex: vagina infections Type of Infection – Fungus – A group of organisms that includes yeast, mold and mushrooms, called mycoses – Causes athlete’s foot , ringworm and yeast infections Types of Infection – Protozoa – One-celled animal-like organism – Causes malaria – Ex- roundworms, flatworms Types of Infection – Prions...
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This note was uploaded on 02/11/2010 for the course AHS 151 taught by Professor Bialstok during the Fall '09 term at Nassau CC.

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10-29-09 - Infectious Diseases picture Prof Ricki Bialstock...

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