10-27-09 - Immune System See picture Made up of the Thymus...

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Immune System
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See picture Made up of the –Thymus –Bone marrow –Spleen –Lymph nodes
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Purpose of Immune System
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To keep infectious organisms out of the body To destroy any infectious organisms or foreign bodies
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Parts of the Immune System
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Picture Tonsils Adenoids Lymph nodes Spleen Lymphatic vessels Peyer’s patches ( in intestines) Appendix Bone marrow
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Terminology
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Antigen – any substance that stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies – such as bacteria, viruses or foreign bodies like a splinter that cause a finger to become inflamed; also like an allergy to bee stings Antibody – also known as immunoglobulin , are proteins found in blood or body fluids and are used by the body to neutralize foreign objects, such as bacteria and viruses. Once the body sees the antigen it makes antibodies and the body remembers how to make those antibodies, so can’t get chicken pox twice
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Immunoglobulins
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Work in a number of ways : –Directly attack antigens –Activate the complement system –Release histamine to activate anaphylaxis – histamine starts inflammatory reaction –Stimulate allergic reactions
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B Lymphocyte
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See picture A white blood cell that comes from the bone marrow Found in circulation Produces antibodies Basis for humoral (blood) immunity – old term for blood? - this immunity uses antibodies
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T Lymphocyte
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A white blood cell that starts in the bone marrow , but matures in the thymus gland Participate in cell-mediated immunity There are several types of T cells
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Types of T Lymphocytes
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Helper T cells 75% of all T cells , help B cells to mature and produce antibodies by secreting lymphokines, activate macrophages (perform phagocytosis), help other T cells to recognize antigens (T4 cells), affected in AIDS virus Natural killer T cells (Cytotoxic T cells ) recognize virus and directly kills it . Sometimes involved in auto immune disorders (autoimmune – attack your own cells – think they’re antigens) Allows virus to be killed without involving a full immune response (CD8 cells) Memory T cells Memory T cells – remember antigens after an infection has resolved – like remembering chicken pox virus Regulatory T cells (Supressor T cells) Regulatory T cells (Supressor T cells) – slow down the immune response and prevent the body from attacking its own tissues
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Chemotaxis
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Migration of bacteria, viruses and other organisms to chemical mediators Chemical mediators attract the bacteria, viruses etc to what will kill them
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Complement System
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A group of plasma proteins that normally lie dormant in the blood, interstitial fluid and mucosal surfaces; complement system has to be activated Through enzymatic reactions several plasma protein fragments are formed.
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This note was uploaded on 02/11/2010 for the course AHS 151 taught by Professor Bialstok during the Fall '09 term at Nassau CC.

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10-27-09 - Immune System See picture Made up of the Thymus...

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