9-22-09 & 9-24-09

9-22-09 & 9-24-09 - Injury Inflammation and Healing...

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Unformatted text preview: Injury, Inflammation and Healing – See picture Cellular Aging – Cells need to be healthy to heal – Aging can affect a cell’s ability to heal – Aging population – Slower wound healing – Decreased resistance to infection Cell Injury – The body’s reaction to cell injury is inflammation – Purpose of Inflammation – Removal of injurious agent – skin gets very hot and burn off bacteria; get rid of what’s causing injury – Removal of cellular debris – so healthy tissue can grow – Initiation of healing – Sometimes tissues can not heal with like tissue, but instead heal with connective tissue – ex: sprain of a ligament (like lateral ankle ligaments) heal with scar tissue which is connective tissue, not ligamentous tissue Mechanisms of Cell Injury (Causes of Cell Injury) – Ischemia – lack of blood supply – Infectious Agents – flu, cold, bronchitis, – Immune or Allergic Reactions – Lupus - being allergic to one’s self – Genetic Factors - inherited – Nutritional Factors – lacks vitamin C leads to scurvy; lack of B vitamins leads to beri beri – Physical Factors – sprains, strains, bruises – Chemical Factors – chemical burns Ischemia – Decreased blood flow to a tissue or organ – Causes hypoxia or anoxia – Hypoxia – decreased levels of O 2 – Anoxia – total lack of O 2 – Lack of O 2 results in decreased ATP, which results in cellular swelling and compromised cellular function - cells won’t work properly – Ex: muscles tendons or brain tissue won’t have same elasticity and will be weaker if experience episodes of decreased oxygen Infectious Agents – Bacteria – Viruses – Mycoplasms – Fungi – Rickettsiae – Protozoa – Helminths – Above cause cellular injury and/or death if left untreated Infectious Agents – Sepsis Sepsis – infection that has spread to the blood – very serious – Septic Septic Shock Shock – cardiovascular collapse due to sepsis – Cellular injury results from – Inflammation reaction – Immune system response – Release of toxins from the infectious agent – make the cell injury even worse – Disturbance of cellular mechanisms Immune Reactions – Some immune reactions activate inflammatory cells and cause swelling – Ex: Hay fever – Others destroy on a cellular level – Ex – autoimmune diseases destroying your own tissues or organs Genetic Factors – Genetically caused chromosomal mutations may cause cellular injury or death – Examples – Sickle Cell Anemia – disease of RBCs – Huntington’s Chorea – inflammation in the brain Nutritional Factors – Proper nutrition is needed for healing – Most important are protein and Vitamin C – Decreased protein intake is called kwashiorkor or marasmus – children get swollen bellies because of abnormal osmosis in the circulation due to lack of protein Vitamin C Deficiency – connective tissue symptoms – Decreased collagen tissue strength – collagen is the “cement” that holds you together...
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This note was uploaded on 02/11/2010 for the course AHS 151 taught by Professor Bialstok during the Fall '09 term at Nassau CC.

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9-22-09 & 9-24-09 - Injury Inflammation and Healing...

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