Menstrual cycle

Menstrual cycle - Menstrual cycle The menstrual cycle is a...

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Menstrual cycle The menstrual cycle is a recurring cycle of physiologic changes that occurs in reproductive- age females . Overt menstruation (where there is blood flow from the vagina ) The menstrual cycle, under the control of the endocrine system is necessary for reproduction . It may be divided into three distinct phases: menstruation , the follicular phase and the luteal phase . [2] Ovulation defines the transition from the follicular phase to the luteal phase. The length of each phase varies from woman to woman and cycle to cycle, though the average menstrual cycle is 28 days. [2] Hormonal contraception interferes with the normal hormonal changes with the aim of preventing reproduction. Stimulated by gradually increasing amounts of estrogen in the follicular phase , menses slow then stop, and the lining of the uterus thickens. Follicles in the ovary begin developing under the influence of a complex interplay of hormones, and after several days one or occasionally two become dominant (non-dominant follicles atrophy and die). Approximately mid-cycle, 24-36 hours after the Luteinizing Hormone (LH) surges, the dominant follicle releases an ovum, or egg in an event called ovulation . After ovulation, the egg only lives for 24 hours or less without fertilization while the remains of the dominant follicle in the ovary become a corpus luteum ; this body has a primary function of producing large amounts of progesterone . Under the influence of progesterone, the endometrium (uterine lining) changes to prepare for potential implantation of an embryo to establish a pregnancy . If implantation does not occur within approximately two weeks, the corpus luteum will involute, causing sharp drops in levels of both progesterone and estrogen. These hormone drops cause the uterus to shed its lining in a process termed menstruation. Phases The menstrual cycle is divided into several phases. The average length of each phase is shown below: Name of phase Average start day assuming a 28-day cycle Average end day
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menstrual phase 1 4 follicular phase (also known as proliferative phase) 5 13 ovulation (not a phase, but an event dividing phases) 12 16 luteal phase (also known as secretory phase)
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This note was uploaded on 02/11/2010 for the course AHS 132 taught by Professor Klinger during the Spring '09 term at Nassau CC.

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Menstrual cycle - Menstrual cycle The menstrual cycle is a...

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