Design and Construction of Concrete Formwork

Design and Construction of Concrete Formwork - 4 Design and...

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© 2003 by CRC Press LLC 4 Design and Construction of Concrete Formwork 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Concrete Formwork 4.3 Materials Lumber • Allowable Stresses for Lumber • Plywood • Engineering Properties of Plywood • Allowable Stresses for Plywood • Ties • Anchors • Hangers • Column Clamps 4.4 Loads on Concrete Formwork Lateral Pressure of Concrete • Recommended Design Values for Form Pressure • Gravity Loads on Formwork • Lateral Loads • Considerations for Multistory Construction 4.5 Analysis and Design for Formwork Simplifying Assumptions for Design • Beam Formulas for Analysis • Stress Calculations • Deflections 4.1 Introduction Concrete formwork serves as a mold to produce concrete elements having a desired size and configuration. It is usually erected for this purpose and then removed after the concrete has cured to a satisfactory strength. In some cases, concrete forms may be left in place to become part of the permanent structure. For satisfactory performance, formwork must be adequately strong and stiff to carry the loads produced by the concrete, the workers placing and finishing the concrete, and any equipment or materials supported by the forms. For many concrete structures, the largest single component of the cost is the formwork. To control this cost, it is important to select and use concrete forms that are well suited for the job. In addition to being economical, formwork must also be constructed with sufficient quality to produce a finished concrete element that meets job specifications for size, position, and finish. The forms must also be designed, constructed, and used so that all safety regulations are met. Formwork costs can exceed 50% of the total cost of the concrete structure, and formwork cost savings should ideally begin with the architect and engineer. They should choose the sizes and shapes of the elements of the structure, after considering the forming requirements and formwork costs, in addition to the usual design requirements of appearance and strength. Keeping constant dimensions from floor to floor, using dimensions that match standard material sizes, and avoiding complex shapes for elements in order to save concrete are some examples of how the architect and structural engineer can reduce forming costs. Arch Alexander Purdue University
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The designer of concrete formwork must choose appropriate materials and utilize them so that the goals of safety, economy, and quality are met. The formwork should be easily built and stripped so that it saves time for the contractor. It should have sufficient strength and stability to safely carry all live and dead loads encountered before, during, and after the placing of the concrete. And, it should be sufficiently resistant to deformations such as sagging or bulging in order to produce concrete that satisfies require- ments for straightness and flatness.
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Design and Construction of Concrete Formwork - 4 Design and...

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