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Unformatted text preview: 2003 by CRC Press LLC 26 Geo-Environment 26.1 Introduction Waste Disposal Projects Environmental Compliance Projects Environmental Remediation Projects 26.2 Geo-Environmental Containment Systems Liners Low-Permeability Covers Slurry Walls 26.3 Liners and Covers Soils Geosynthetics 26.1 Introduction The objective of this chapter is to present the main applications of geotechnical engineering to environ- mental projects. There are numerous examples of these applications, among which the most frequent are waste disposal projects, environmental compliance projects, and environmental remediation projects. Although some projects could be classified under more than one category, in this introduction they are separated depending on whether the project is (1) to be designed prior to the disposal of waste; (2) the objective of the project is to control releases to the environment caused by current activities or to bring a facility into compliance with current environmental or health and safety regulations; or (3) the objective is to remediate a site impacted by previous releases and/or control releases from contaminants or wastes accumulated at a site. Although there is not uniformity in these definitions, generally the term environmental compliance is applied to active facilities, whereas environmental remediation is applied to closed facilities. The main objective of the three categories of projects mentioned above is to reduce or minimize impacts to the environment. Releases that impact the environment may occur through the disposal or spreading of solid wastes or liquid wastes , the infiltration or runoff of liquids that have been in contact with wastes, or through gaseous emissions. These releases may, in turn, impact different media. They may carry contaminants into soils located in upland areas or into sediments within water bodies, transport liquids or dissolved contaminants through groundwater or surface water bodies, or be released to the atmosphere. The geo-environmental structures used to reduce or minimize the propagation of contaminants through the different media are called containment systems. The most commonly used containment systems are liner systems, cover systems (or caps), and slurry wall cut-offs. The use of liner systems is generally limited to new projects or expansions, while cover systems and slurry walls are used with all categories of projects. This chapter presents a brief description of the main categories of environmental projects mentioned above, followed by a detailed discussion of liner and cover systems, including materials used for their construction and some construction-related aspects. Waste Disposal Projects As indicated above, the first category of environmental projects comprises those projects designed and constructed to contain waste materials prior to the disposal of waste. This includes projects such as Pedro C. Repetto Woodward-Clyde Consultants landfills, lagoons , and tailings impoundments. Although tailings impoundments are basically landfills,, and tailings impoundments....
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This note was uploaded on 02/11/2010 for the course ENGR CIVE 402 taught by Professor Thorton during the Spring '10 term at Colorado State.
- Spring '10