Geosynthetics - 24 Geosynthetics 24.1 Introduction Types...

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© 2003 by CRC Press LLC 24 Geosynthetics 24.1 Introduction Types and Manufacture • Applications and Functions • Historical and Recent Developments • Design and Selection • Properties and Tests • Specifications 24.2 Filtration, Drainage, and Erosion Control Filtration Design Concepts • Applications • Prefabricated Drains 24.3 Geosynthetics in Temporary and Permanent Roadways and Railroads Design Approaches 24.4 Geosynthetics for Reinforcement Reinforced Embankments • Slope Stability • Reinforced Retaining Walls and Abutments 24.5 Geosynthetics in Waste Containment Systems 24.1 Introduction In only a very few years, geosynthetics (geotextiles, geogrids, and geomembranes) have joined the list of traditional civil engineering construction materials. Often the use of a geosynthetic can significantly increase the safety factor, improve performance, and reduce costs in comparison with conventional construction alternatives. In the case of embankments on extremely soft foundations, geosynthetics can permit construction to take place at sites where conventional construction alternatives would be either impossible or prohibitively expensive. Two recent conferences dealt specifically with geosynthetics and soil improvement, and their proceed- ings deserve special mention (see Holtz [1988a] and Borden et al. [1992]). After an introduction to geosynthetic types and properties, recent developments in the use of geosyn- thetics for the improvement of soils in foundations and slopes will be summarized. Primary applications are to drainage and erosion control systems, temporary and permanent roadways and railroads, soil reinforcement, and waste containment systems. There are a number of geotextile -related materials, such as webs, mats, nets, grids, and sheets, which may be made of plastic, metal, bamboo, or wood, but so far there is no ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) definition for these materials. They are “geotextile-related” because they are used in a similar manner, especially in reinforcement and stabilization situations, to geotextiles. Geotextiles and related products such as nets and grids can be combined with geomembranes and other synthetics to take advantage of the best attributes of each component. These products are called geocomposites, and they may be composites of geotextile–geonets, geotextile–geogrids, geotex- tile–geomembranes, geomembrane–geonets, geotextile–polymeric cores, and even three-dimensional polymeric cell structures. There is almost no limit to the variety of geocomposites that are possible and useful. The general generic term encompassing all these materials is geosynthetic . R. D. Holtz University of Washington, Seattle
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Types and Manufacture A convenient classification for geosynthetics is given in Fig. 24.1 . For details on the composition, mate- rials, and manufacture of geotextiles and related materials, see Koerner and Welsh [1980], Rankilor [1981], Giroud and Carroll [1983], Christopher and Holtz [1985], Veldhuijzen van Zanten [1986], Ingold and Miller [1988], and Koerner [1990a]. Most geosynthetics are made from synthetic polymers such as
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Geosynthetics - 24 Geosynthetics 24.1 Introduction Types...

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