Open Channel Hydraulics

Open Channel Hydraulics - 30 Open Channel Hydraulics 30.1...

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© 2003 by CRC Press LLC 30 Open Channel Hydraulics 30.1 Definitions and Principles Classification of Flows • Flow Regimes 30.2 Balance and Conservation Principles Conservation of Mass • Conservation of Momentum • Piezometric Head • Boundary Shear • Total Thrust and Specific Force • Balance of Mechanical Energy • Specific Energy • Hydraulic Jump 30.3 Uniform Flow 30.4 Composite Cross-Sections 30.5 Gradually Varied Flow 30.6 Water Surface Profile Analysis The Mild Slope Profiles • The Steep Slope Profiles • The Critical Slope Profiles • The Horizontal Slope Profiles • The Adverse Slope Profiles 30.7 Qualitative Solution of Flow Profiles Phase I — Determination of Critical Depths and Normal Depths • Phase II — Virtual Control Section (VCS) Determination • Phase III — Profile Sketching 30.8 Methods of Calculation of Flow Profiles 30.9 Unsteady Flows 30.10 Software Open channel hydraulics, a subject of great importance to civil engineers, deals with flows having a free surface in channels constructed for water supply, irrigation, drainage, and hydroelectric power generation; in sewers, culverts, and tunnels flowing partially full; and in natural streams and rivers. Open channel hydraulics includes steady flows that are unchanging in time, varied flows that have changes in depth and velocity along the channel, and transient flows that are time dependent. This chapter deals only with rigid- boundary channels without sediment deposition or erosion. In addition, this chapter assumes that wind and surface tension stresses exerted on the free surface are negligible, and that velocities are low enough that air is not entrained. The emphasis is on the one-dimensional treatment of uniform and nonuniform flows which are common in civil engineering practice. Design aspects of structures involving free surface flows are discussed in Chapter 35. Sediment transport in open channels is covered in Chapter 33. 30.1 Definitions and Principles Open channel flow is the flow of a single phase liquid with a free surface in a gravitational field when the effects of surface tension and of the overlying gas can be neglected. Because laminar open channel flows Aldo Giorgini (deceased) Donald D. Gray West Virginia University
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are seldom encountered in civil engineering practice, only turbulent flows will be considered in this chapter. The analysis of open channel flows is largely based on the approximation that the mean stream- lines are nearly parallel. As shown below, this implies that the piezometric head is nearly constant on planes normal to the flow, and allows a one-dimensional analysis. Regions of nonparallel streamlines are considered by using control volume arguments. In some cases, these assumptions are inadequate, and a much more complicated two- or three-dimensional analysis must be used.
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Open Channel Hydraulics - 30 Open Channel Hydraulics 30.1...

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