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Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing

Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing - 56 Photogrammetry and...

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© 2003 by CRC Press LLC 56 Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 56.1 Basic Concepts in Photogrammetry Scale and Coverage • Relief and Tilt Displacement • Parallax and Stereo 56.2 Sensors and Platforms Cameras • Scanners • Pushbroom Linear Sensors 56.3 Mathematics of Photogrammetry Condition Equations • Block Adjustment • Object Space Coordinate Systems 56.4 Instruments and Equipment Stereoscopes • Monocomparator, Stereocomparator, Point Marker • Stereo Restitution: Analogue, Analytical, Softcopy • Scanners • Plotters 56.5 Photogrammetric Products Topographic Maps • Image Products • Digital Elevation Models • Geographic Information Systems and Photogrammetry 56.6 Digital Photogrammetry Data Sources • Digital Image Processing Fundamentals • Matching Techniques 56.7 Photogrammetric Project Planning Flight Planning • Control Points 56.8 Close-Range Metrology Equipment • Applications 56.9 Remote Sensing Data Sources • Geometric Modeling • Interpretive Remote Sensing 56.1 Basic Concepts in Photogrammetry The term photogrammetry refers to the measurement of photographs and images for the purpose of making inferences about the size, shape, and spatial attributes of the objects appearing in the images. The term remote sensing refers to the analysis of photographs and images for the purpose of extracting the best interpretation of the image content. Thus the two terms are by no means mutually exclusive and each one includes some aspects of the other. However, the usual connotations designate geometric inferences as photogrammetry and radiometric inferences as remote sensing. Classically, both photo- grammetry and remote sensing relied on photographs, that is, silver halide emulsion products, as the imaging medium. In recent years digital images or computer resident images have taken on an increasingly important role in both photogrammetry and remote sensing. Thus many of the statements to be found herein will refer to the general term images rather than to the more restrictive term photographs . The J.S. Bethel Purdue University
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characteristic of photogrammetry and remote sensing that distinguishes them from casual photography is the insistence on a thorough understanding of the sensor geometry and its radiometric response. The predominant type of imaging used for civil engineering applications is the traditional 23-cm format frame aerial photograph. Photogrammetric and remote sensing techniques can be equally applied to satellite images and to close-range images acquired from small format cameras. The main contributions of photogrammetry and remote sensing to civil engineering include topographic mapping, orthophoto production, planning, environmental monitoring, database development for geographic information systems (GIS), resource inventory and monitoring, and deformation analysis.
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