Solid Waste and Landfills

Solid Waste and Landfills - © 2003 by CRC Press LLC 14...

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Unformatted text preview: © 2003 by CRC Press LLC 14 Solid Waste/Landfills 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Solid Waste Regulatory Framework • Solid Waste Characteristics 14.3 Landfills Minimum Federal Regulatory Criteria for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills • Environmental Effects of Municipal Landfills • Remedial Alternatives for Superfund Municipal Landfills • Landfills — Present Status 14.1 Introduction The proper management of solid waste is now, more than ever, a matter of national and international concern. As a nation, we are generating more solid waste than ever before. At the same time, we are finding that there are limitations to traditional solid waste management practices. As the generation of solid waste continues to increase, the capacity to handle it is decreasing. Many landfills and incinerators have closed, and new disposal facilities are often difficult to cite. Even though municipal solid waste (MSW) constitutes only a portion of the solid waste streams, the rate of its generation is staggering. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) most recent data show that in 1988, 180 million tons, or 4.0 pounds per person per day of MSW, were generated in the U.S. [EPA, 1990a]. By the year 2000, generation of MSW is projected by the EPA to reach 216 million tons, or 4.4 pounds per person per day. Based on current trends and information, EPA anticipates that 20 to 28% of MSW will be recovered annually by 1995. Exceeding this projected range will require fundamental changes in government programs, technology, and corporate and consumer behavior. According to EPA data [EPA, 1990a], recovery of MSW materials for recycling and composting was 13% in 1988, combustion was 14% of total generation, and the remaining 73% of the MSW stream was taken to landfills. In response to the growing national concern about the solid waste disposal crisis, EPA developed an “agenda for action” and a national strategy for addressing the MSW management problems [EPA, 1989a]. The cornerstone of the strategy is “integrated waste management,” where source reduction (i.e., reduction of the quantity and toxicity of materials and products entering the solid waste stream) followed by recycling are the first steps of an effective solid waste management system, and are complemented by environmentally sound combustion and landfilling. 14.2 Solid Waste Regulatory Framework Solid waste is regulated under Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the corresponding federal regulations found in 40 Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) Parts 257 and 258. Vasiliki Keramida Keramida Environmental, Inc. Subtitle D solid waste is not subject to the hazardous waste regulations under Subtitle C of RCRA. Solid waste is defined in 40 CFR 257 as “any garbage, refuse, sludge from waste treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility and other discarded material, including solid, liquid, semisolid, or contained gaseous material resulting from industrial, commercial, mining, and agricultural...
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Solid Waste and Landfills - © 2003 by CRC Press LLC 14...

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