Special Concrete and Applications

Special Concrete and Applications - 42 Special Concrete and...

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© 2003 by CRC Press LLC 42 Special Concrete and Applications 42.1 Concreting in Extreme Climatic Conditions Cold Climatic Condition • Hot Climatic Conditions 42.2 Polymer Modified Concrete Classifications • Polymer-impregnated Concrete • Polymer Cement Concrete • Polymer Concrete 42.3 High Performance Concrete Definitions • High Performance Criteria • Formulation of High Performance Criteria • Cements, Chemical Admixtures, Mineral Additives, Fibers and Special Reinforcement • Special Processes • Applications of High Performance Concrete • Production as Key Criterion • In-service Performance as Key Criterion • Sustainability as Key Criterion 42.4 Self-Compacting Concrete 42.5 High Volume Fly Ash Concrete Fly Ash and High Volume Fly Ash Concrete • Mixture Proportion and Properties • Basis for Applications • Built Structures • Current Developments • Summary 42.6 Concrete for Sustainable Development Sustainable Development • Moving Forward • Cement and Concrete in Sustainable Development • Applications 42.1 Concreting in Extreme Climatic Conditions C.T. Tam Concrete is a commonly used construction material in most parts of the world. However, much of the current available knowledge on concrete technology has been mainly generated in the more developed parts of the world. These regions are mostly in the temperate zone. Hence, much of the standard specifications for concreting practice are based on experience in these cooler regions of the world. When concreting in climatic conditions that are different from the normal range, one should consider these to be extreme climatic conditions. For the normal temperature range of 10 to 20 o C current standard specifications developed for temperate regions are adequate. There are occasions when the ambient temperature falls way below this range. This is often referred to as cold weather concreting. On the other hand when the ambient temperature is much above this range, it is referred to as hot weather concreting. However, it is useful to differentiate between an unusually warm summer day in a temperature country from the constantly warm climate outside the temperature zones. STUVO (1982), the Netherlands representative of FIP, has classified climatic regions in the zone of hot countries around the equator into two separate main sub-groups. On the one hand, Vute Sirivivatnanon CSIRO C. T. Tam National University of Singapore D. W. S. Ho National University of Singapore
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there is a wet and tropical (hot-humid) climate and on the other, a dry and desert-type (hot-arid) climate. These three different conditions of high temperatures at the time of placing concrete require different degrees of precautions to be taken to achieve proper performance of concrete. All these three types of climatic conditions are covered by the more general description of ACI Committee 305 as follows: “Any combination of the following conditions that tend to impair the quality of freshly mixed or
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Special Concrete and Applications - 42 Special Concrete and...

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