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Urban Transit - 61 Urban Transit 61.1 Transit Modes Bus...

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© 2003 by CRC Press LLC 61 Urban Transit 61.1 Transit Modes Bus • Light Rail • Metro • Other Modes • Line Capacity • Comparing Alternatives 61.2 The Transit Environment Travel Patterns and Urban Form • Transit Financing • Transit Management 61.3 Fundamentals of Cyclic Operations Fundamental Operating Parameters and Relationships • Fundamental Measures of Passenger Demand • Basic Schedule Design 61.4 Frequency Determination 61.5 Scheduling and Routing Deficit Function Analysis • Network Analysis • Automated Scheduling • Interlining and Through-Routing • Pulse (Timed Transfer) Systems • Operating Strategies for High-Demand Corridors • Route Design 61.6 Patronage Prediction and Pricing Predicting Changes • Revenue Forecasting and Pricing • Prediction for Service to New Markets 61.7 Operating Cost Models 61.8 Monitoring Operations, Ridership, and Service Quality Operations Monitoring • Passenger Counting • Service Standards • Data Collection Program Design 61.9 Ridership Estimation and Sampling Ridership and Passenger-Miles Estimation • Direct Estimation with Simple Random Sampling • Using Conversion Factors • Other Sampling Techniques • Estimating a Route-Level Origin–Destination Matrix 61.1 Transit Modes The principal transit modes are bus, light rail, and metro (heavy rail). Bus Bus is the most common transit mode, operating in every urban area in the U.S. Nearly all transit coaches in the U.S. are powered by diesel engines, although experimentation with alternative fuels has grown since the enactment of the Clean Air Act of 1990. The standard 40-ft coach can seat 40–55 passengers, depending on seating configuration. Smaller coaches are common in settings of lower passenger demand. Large, articulated coaches, seating 60–75, are common in some cities on high-volume routes. The bus mode uses the existing road network. Its two greatest advantages are its low capital cost and its ability to access transit demand anywhere. Sharing the road with general traffic is also the bus’s main Peter G. Furth Northeastern University
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weakness: Buses suffer traffic delays, and ride quality often suffers due to poor pavement quality. Priority schemes, such as those listed in Table 61.1 , can be used to reduce traffic delays. The ultimate priority scheme is a busway, a bus-only roadway with grade separation that gives buses a comparable level of service to that of rail lines [Bonsall, 1987]. Cities with busways include Pittsburgh, Ottawa, and Adelaide, Australia. Light Rail Streetcar was once the dominant transit mode, operating on tracks laid in city streets. Their replacement by buses, beginning around 1930 and largely completed by 1960, was due in part to the lower capital cost of bus systems and in part to the streetcar’s inflexibility in mixed traffic. For example, to avoid being blocked by parked vehicles, tracks were usually laid in the inside lane of a multilane street, forcing passengers to board and alight in the middle of the street instead of at the curb. Few such streetcar operations remain in North America. Still surviving, and growing in number, are systems operating
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