Unformatted text preview: Chapter six, International Business International business faces great challenges due to cultural differences. Bribery. Inadequate standards Unsafe construction. Inadequate environmental protection. Multiculturalism generally affirms cultural relativism as the correct approach. Multiculturalism says one culture's values are just as good as any other culture's. Where does Relativist Ethics come from? Sociologists Observe differences in moral practice between cultures and conclude there are no universal rules. Polygamy and monogamy. Euthanasia and infanticide. Treachery as a virtue. Bribery. Cultural relativism observes Different cultures sometimes have different standards of right and wrong. Ethical relativism a philosophical position: All ethical values are culturally created. Appeal of relativism Morality does not develop apart from culture. However, some values are immoral no matter what a culture says. Slavery, widow-burning, genocide are evil regardless of culture. Degradation of women is never right. Relativism is not the only alternative to absolutism. Prima facie absolutism is one such alternative. It argues that all moral rules are binding, but sometimes one moral rule is more important than another in a given context. Appeal of relativism Multiculturalism relativism is a popularized form of It calls for sensitivity to other cultures. It believes all cultural values are acceptable. But then we have no way to evaluate competing values. Claims values. Multiculturalism considers absolutists intolerant and/or ignorant. to be scientific and neutral about Weaknesses of relativism
1. Moral diversity is often overstated. Every culture has rules for the major areas of life. There are rules for murder, sex, truth, property, etc. 2. In practice, different cultures may express similar moral values differently. Still, the underlying principles are often very similar. Further, majority vote does not ensure a practice is moral. 3. No way to choose between competing claims. One cultural practice is just as good as another. An oppressive culture or regime can not be criticized. 4. Moral prophets are just misfits. 5. The statement "everything is relative" actually undermines itself. (On the other hand, rigid legalism does not solve the problem either.) Essays Adeney and bribery NY Times Magazine and sweatshops Ch. 7 Human Resources Management Pp. 256257, ten scenarios. Decide in each case if the management has Is firing justified in the first five? Is invasion of privacy justified in the last five? justification for its action. Rights
1. A right to freedom A right not to be restrained or coerced. "Freedom that comes from having sufficient resources to make minimally acceptable options and goals possible." Not just "freedom" on paper. 2. A right to wellbeing...to pursue interests. 3. A right to equality...respect as a person... personal autonomy. 4. Specific rights: Fair pay Safety Due process Privacy Ewing's Employee Bill of Rights Pp. 283284 What about Ewing's list of rights. Would an employees' bill of rights be a Would you take exception to some? Would you qualify some of the rights Ewing states? Do you think some of the rights are especially needed? good thing? Text's Principles for Employees
(pp. 287-288) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The terms of one's contract should be honored. Employees are to be paid fairly and in a timely fashion. Workplace safety should be ensured. Some due process is necessary. The workplace should be free of sexual harassment. The workplace should be free of discrimination. There should be some privacy in the workplace. Employee Right to Privacy The right to privacy vs. the company's interest in holding employees accountable. The right to privacy may be overridden when there is probable cause to believe crime is being committed. The right may be overridden when files are needed in the employee's absence. The following policies relating to privacy should be disclosed prior to employment: Monitoring of email and/or computer use Random drug testing Employer Rights The right to have its job descriptions met by employees. The right to assess employee performance according to specifications in job descriptions. (A fair day's work for a fair days wage.) The right to protect the employer against fraud and theft. The right to protect against actions that would damage the employer's reputation. Right to some degree of loyalty. Sexual Harassment Employees have the right to protection from sexual harassment. The accused person also has the right to due process. Types of harassment: standard of the "reasonable woman" may at least help define the hostile environment type of harassment.) 1) quid pro quo, 2) hostile environment (Ambiguous, but the Sexual Harassment 1. Ambiguous definitions objective criteria are Problems related to the issue: needed. 2. Finding a proper balance between protection and due process. 3. Men and women see the problem differently. 4. Some believe the current emphasis may have gone too far. Affirmative Action What it consists of Active recruiting of women and minorities. Equalization of criteria don't favor any group over others. 3) Provide women and minorities adequate training to qualify for senior positions. 4) Promote qualified women and minorities to senior management positions. Quotas....? Courts have ruled against. Many think there no longer is a problem. Minority workers and women often disagree. 1) 2) Cases Case: (263) Woman account executive assigned to a rich client. He wants a male executive. What to do and what not to do. Case: (263) Late delivery just before a big sale. What are options for getting goods to the stores? "Privacy, the Workplace and the Internet"
Seumas Miller and John Weckert, JBE 28, 2000.
Possibilities of data collection are diverse. Descriptive: Tells what is done. What is a proper understanding of privacy? Normative: Tells what ought to be done. The goal should be to protect the moral right of Should these simply be determined by power? a person to control information about him or herself. "Privacy, the Workplace and the Internet" (cont.) The right to protect the inner self The right to privacy in intimate personal relations. Privacy about objects I own Privacy related to facts about public roles, Privacy to pursue my personal goals and projects. Voting. supporting certain things or causes. money, vehicles, etc. thoughts, beliefs, emotions. Data Collection
1. Employer has a right to weed out bad employees. When does that right infringe on privacy inappropriately? Association for Computing Machinery code suggests 1. Only necessary personal information be collected. 2. Retention and disposal be clearly defined and enforced. Data Collection
2. Employees are accountable to employers. Some argue that monitoring can be useful to employees for purposes of coaching and motivating. Improve work practices. Employees can be assessed on purely objective criteria. Helps get rid of "dead wood." Potentially it might help control crime in the workplace. Data Collection - Principles A right should not be infringed. Monitoring email and web sites visited? What if employees help set up the monitoring? It still has potential for economic coercion. Email only after policy announcement. Web sites similar to privacy protection by libraries. The burden of proof should be on the persons who want access to employee usage. It should certainly be announced beforehand. It may be improper. Monitoring of classes taken on the internet? Some laws may make companies complicit with employees for certain crimes. This may not be good law. J. H. Foegan. "The Double Jeopardy of Sexual Harassment." Business and 1) Chilling effect on relations between genders in office. 2) Uncertainty, need for clarification of definition.
Society Review. (1992) "The Moral Foundation of Employee Rights" John R. Rowan. (JBE, April 2000) What is a right? Employees should be treated as persons A right should be understood as a "moral claim." Some rights may not be recognized by any conventional or legal system. A right is relational it is a claim for something expected. with moral value. Oral Presentation of Current Article
Due Next Week, Workshop 4
4 to 6 minutes in length 1. Facts, brief summary. 2. Ethical issues 2 or 3. 3. Stake holders 3 to 5 major. 4. Possible actions at least 2. 5. Evaluate the action to be taken in Step 7 using Utility and Categorical Imperative. 6. Any major practical constraint. (Optional) 7. Action to be taken. Audiovisual supports will add to grade. ...
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