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cse182exam1studyguide

cse182exam1studyguide - Chapter1 1.General-purpose computer...

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Chapter1 1.General-purpose computer systems are electronic devices that process data and are composed of hardware and software. 2. Hardware refers to the physical devices that you can touch.Hardware components facilitate input,processing,storage,and output of data into information that humans can understand. 3. The power of the computer rests with software,which is the set of instructions or pro- grams that give the hardware functionality. 4. The Analytical Engine shaped the model for what is known today as a general-purpose computer because it included input and output devices,memory storage,and a control unit,and it processed instructions. 5. Many consider today’s computer technology to be in the fth generation of modern fi computing.Each era is characterized by an important advancement. 6. The CPU has two major roles.It performs arithmetic and logical comparisons on data and coordinates the operations of the system. 7. Memory is divided into sections,or cells,which can each hold an equal amount of data.All cells have a unique address.Computer memories are commonly divided into 8-bit groupings.This 8-bit combination is called a byte. 8. Computers use the base-2 numbering system,also known as the binary numbering system,to represent data.With only 8 bits,you can represent 2 8 ,or 256,different deci- mal values ranging from 0 to 255,or 256 different characters. 9. The character set used by C# programmers is called Unicode.Sixteen bits are used to represent every character uniquely,which means that 2 16 or 65,536 different charactercan be represented. 10. Software can be divided into two categories:system software and application softwareApplication software is de ned as the programs developed to perform a speci c fi fi task. 11. The type of software most often associated with system software is the operating sys- tem.The operating system software is loaded when you turn on the computer.Other types of system software are compilers,interpreters,and assemblers. 12. Programming is a process of problem solving.The hardest part is coming up with a plan to solve the problem.
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