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Test 3 notes (part 2)

Test 3 notes (part 2) - A Pavlovs Theory of the Cerebral...

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A. Pavlov’s Theory of the Cerebral Cortex: a. Conditioning (learning) is a function of cortical excitation and inhibition. b. The afferent stimulation elicited by a stimulus produces an excitatory process at some definite point on the cortex which is thought to spread gradually over the entire sensory area. c. The intensity of the spreading effect is referred to as: “cortical irradiation of excitation” d. With repeated presentation of the CS-UCS paring the cortical stimulation elicited by the tone (CS) should gravitate toward the stronger cortical stimulation of the UCS until the locus of the neutral stimulus is of sufficient intensity to elicit the CR. e. The assumption is made that when the elicitation of either cortical excitation or inhibition occurs, the surrounding areas of the cortex produce the opposite effect referred to as induction. f. Neurosis was regarded as a functional pathology of the cortex which is a result of active clashing of the excitatory and inhibitory process. g. Implications for treatement? h. Objections: i. No direct physiological measures. ii. No evidence for irradiation iii. The premise that conditioning is an exclusive cortical function. B. The great theoretical debate of the 1940’s
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a. Theories i. Thorndike’s connectionism ii. Guthrie’s contiguous conditioning iii. Skinner’s Operant Conditioning iv. Hull’s systematic behavior v. Tolman’s Sign Learning Classical Gestalt Theory vi. Lewin’s Field Theory vii. Freud’s Psychodynamics C. Neo-Behaviorism Philosophy of Science a. Logical Positivism i. All knowledge is derived from empirical observation ii. Theories have an essential role in science 1. Must have meaningful statements verifiable by observation 2. Must be clearly and formally connected to empirical observations 3. Theory is formal axiomatic systems in which connections between scientific laws and observables are explicit. 4. Constructs (Abstract relations) between observables must be clearly defined operationally.
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iii. Operational Definitions: 1. Bergmann’s meanings a. Specificity via operations b. Functional utility b. Nature of Theory construction: i. What is a Theory? ii. What is a Concept? iii. What is a Construct? c. Three elements of scientific theory construction: i. Hypothesis------------- testability ii. Intuitive----------------- rigorous iii. Constructs: iv. Operational Specificty: v. With Surplus meaning- without control: vi. Observation: every day----- experimental d. Intervening variable vs. hypothetical construct: i. Mac Corquadal- meehl distinction e. Models of Theory construction: (Model; deductive; functional; inductive)
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Thorndike’s Connectionism D. In thorndike’s earliest writings the basis of learning was defined as the association between sense impression and impulse to action. His approach became known as “Bond” psychology or “connectionism”.
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