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Psych 115 Book Notes

Psych 115 Book Notes - Psych 115 Book Notes Appendix...

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Psych 115 Book Notes Appendix: Molecular Biology: Basic Concepts and Important Techniques I. Genes Carry Info that Encodes the Synthesis of Proteins a. Genes – little pieces of information, inherited from parent, which affects the development of our cells. b. Each gene codes for the construction of a specific string of amino acids to form a protein molecule. That’s all that genes do. Proteins then make the complex behavior possible. c. Enzymes are protein molecules that allow particular chemical reactions to occur in our cells. Ex: liver-typical proteins will look like liver cells and perform liver function II. Genetic Information is stored in molecules of DNA a. DNA – a nucleic acid that is present in the chromosomes of cells and codes hereditary information b. Each DNA consists of nucleotides, a portion of a DNA or RNA molecule that is composed of a single base and the adjoining sugar—phosphate unit of the strand. c. DNA has four nucleotides: guanine, cytosine, thymine, and adenine. d. T links with A and G links with C. therefore, they compliment each other e. Humans and other organs are known as eukaryotes because we store our chromosomes in a membranous sphere called nucleus f. Chromosomes – look like twisted yarn, found in the nucleus of the cell III. DNA is transcribed to produce messenger RNA a. RNA – uses info from DNA to make RNA, which serves as a template for later steps in protein synthesis. DNA unwinds till one strand is free, connecting to another a cellular machinery and begins transcription (the process during which mRNA forms bases complementary to a strand of FNA. The resulting message then us used to translate the DNA code into protein molecules. G goes to C and A goes to U (only for RNA) b. mRNA – a strand of RNA that carries the code of a section of DNA strand to the cytoplasm. IV. RNA molecules direct the formation of protein molecules a. The cytoplasm has ribosomes (structures in the cell body where genetic info is translated and proteins are produced) that attach themselves to a molecule of RNA, then uses that info begin linking together amino acids to form proteins.
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