C4post - Chapter 1-3: required reading Chapter 4 Chemical...

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Chapter 1-3: required reading Chapter 4 Chemical Quantities and Aqueous Reactions 2008, Prentice Hall
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Reaction Stoichiometry the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction is called stoichiometry 2 C 8 H 18 ( l ) + 25 O 2 ( g ) 16 CO 2 ( g ) + 18 H 2 O( g ) 2 molecules of C 8 H 18 react with 25 molecules of O 2 to form 16 molecules of CO 2 and 18 molecules of H 2 O 2 moles of C 8 H 18 react with 25 moles of O 2 to form 16 moles of CO 2 and 18 moles of H 2 O Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 2
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Predicting Amounts from Stoichiometry How much CO 2 can be made from 22.0 moles of C 8 H 18 in the combustion of C 8 H 18 ? 2 C 8 H 18 ( l ) + 25 O 2 ( g ) 16 CO 2 ( g ) + 18 H 2 O( g ) Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 3
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Limiting Reactant the reactant that limits the amount of product is called the limiting reactant ± sometimes called the limiting reagent ± the limiting reactant gets completely consumed reactants not completely consumed are called excess reactants the amount of product that can be made from the limiting reactant is called the theoretical yield Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 4
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Things Don’t Always Go as Planned! the amount of product that is made in a reaction is called the actual yield actual yield Percent Yield 100% theoretical yield Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 5
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Limiting and Excess Reactants in the Combustion of Methane CH 4 ( g ) + 2 O 2 ( g ) CO 2 ( g ) + 2 H 2 O( g ) H H C H H + O O C + O O O O + O H H O H H + Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 6
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Limiting and Excess Reactants in the Combustion of Methane CH 4 ( g ) + 2 O 2 ( g ) CO 2 ( g ) + 2 H 2 O( g ) If we have 5 molecules of CH 4 and 8 molecules of O 2 , which is the limiting reactant? H H C H H + O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O ? H H C H H H H C H H H H C H H H H C H H 7
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Example: When 28.6 kg of C are allowed to react with 88.2 kg of TiO 2 in the reaction below, 42.8 kg of Ti are obtained. Find the Limiting Reactant, Theoretical Yield, and Percent Yield. 2 TiO 2 C Ti 2 CO (s) (s) (s) (g) + + Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 8
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Solution Concentration Molarity amount of solute (in moles) molarity, M amount of solution (in L) = Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 9
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Dilution often, solutions are stored as concentrated stock solutions to make solutions of lower concentrations from these stock solutions, more solvent is added ± the amount of solute doesn’t change, just the volume of solution moles solute in solution 1 = moles solute in solution 2 M 1 · V 1 = M 2 · V 2 Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 10
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To what volume should you dilute 0.200 L of 15.0 M NaOH to make 3.00 M NaOH? What volume of 0.150 M KCl is required to completely react with 0.150 L of 0.175 M Pb(NO3)2 in the reaction 2 KCl(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) = PbCl2(s) + 2 KNO3(aq)
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What Happens When a Solute Dissolves? 12
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Table Salt Dissolving in Water Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 13
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Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes materials that dissolve in water to form a solution that will conduct electricity are called electrolytes materials that dissolve in water to form a solution that will not conduct electricity are called nonelectrolytes Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 14
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This note was uploaded on 02/12/2010 for the course CHEM 1A taught by Professor Nitsche during the Summer '08 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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C4post - Chapter 1-3: required reading Chapter 4 Chemical...

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