CARE OF PATIENTS WITH CARDIAC DISORDERS TERESA EDDS MSN,RN Chapter 19
DISORDERS OF THE HEART Heart Failure Right sided Left sided Pulmonary Edema Cardiac dysrhythmias Inflammatory Diseases/Infectious Diseases Infective Endocarditis Pericarditis Cardiomyopathy Valve disorders DISORDERSOFTHE HEART ¡ Heart Failure ¡ Right sided ¡ Left sided ¡ Pulmonary Edema ¡ Cardiac dysrhythmias ¡ InflammatoryDiseases/Infectious Diseases ¡ Infective Endocarditis ¡ Pericarditis ¡ Cardiomyopathy ¡ Valve disorders
HEART FAILURE More than 5 million Americans with heart failure Over 650,000 are diagnosed each year Over half will die within 5 years after diagnosis African Americans are more prevalent 4 stages of HF table 19-1 page 425
HEART FAILURE VIDEO
CAUSE OF HEART FAILURE Coronary artery disease Uncontrolled Hypertension Weakness of the heart muscle: Toxins, infection, anemia, myocarditis, dilation from blood congestion, MI
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY HF is caused by increased pressure, and congestion Weakened heart muscle Narrowing of the vessels Improper functioning valves Damage to the heart from MI, infection, ischemia
FACTORS THAT PRECIPITATE HEART FAILURE BOX 19-1 Anemia Sepsis Myocardial infarction Pulmonary embolism Hypertension Thyroid disorders Dysrhythmias Cardiac infections Chronic pulmonary disease Stress
LEFT-SIDED HEART FAILURE Typically occurs first Causes residual blood in the ventricles Causes blood to backup or get congested in the lungs Causes pulmonary edema This causes congestion and backup in the right side of the heart- leading to right sided heart failure
RIGHT-SIDED HEART FAILURE ; Causes by chronic pulmonary disease causing scaring to the lungs The right ventricle is not able to eject blood into the lungs Causes resistance, and increased pressure on the veins during venous return The peripheral veins enlarge, causing intravascular leakage into the interstitial space Fluid accumulates into the liver Kidneys are not able to perfuse Decreased perfusion to brain causes confusion, and/or excitability Causes left-sided heart failure
LEFT VS. RIGHT SIDED HEART FAILURE Left Side: Blood backs up into the lungs Pulmonary congestion, and pulmonary edema Right Side: Fluid entering the heart backs up Veins and tissues in the body begin to swell Third spacing: pitting edema, hepatomegaly, ascites
DIAGNOSIS Presenting symptoms of HF Diagnostic tests: Chest x-ray, echocardiogram, ECG, MRI, CBC,CMP, and BMP Audible S3 S4 heart sounds
TREATMENT Identify and treat symptoms Identify and treat underlying cause of HF Treat dysrhythmias Surgically correct valve abnormalities
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- Fall '19
- Cardiology, Cardiac electrophysiology, Heart, Toxins