Lecture 03 Biochemsitry Some Basics Fall 2009

Lecture 03 Biochemsitry Some Basics Fall 2009 - Some Basics...

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Unformatted text preview: Some Basics of Biochemistry Building blocks Lipids : molecules of fatty acid such as phospholipids, which form membrane bilayers Amino acids : building blocks of peptides and proteins Nucleotides : building blocks of RNA and DNA Carbohydrates (Sugars) : example starch Amino acids The properties of each amino acid are determined by the chemical characteristics of the side chain. Amino acids are generally divided in 4 groups: Hydrophobic, Charged (+ or -), Polar, and others. These amino acids tend to be surface exposed, or they are electrically neutralized.-OH group can be phosphorylated can form S-S bond with another Cys Induces a turn in the secondary structure of proteins Peptide bond The peptide bond The peptide bond has partial double bond character (40%) therefore the CO-NH atoms are generally in a planar conformation while the alpha-carbon is theoretically free to rotate allowing mobility of the residue R between two peptide bonds. Primary structure Secondary structure Tertiary structure Protein structure Quaternary structure Enzymes Proteins that can accelerate, or catalyze, chemical reactions in a specific manner. Note that some RNA molecules behave like enzymes (ribozymes) Enzyme Characteristics Enzymes lower the transition energy required for reactions to proceed. As a result, catalyzed reactions can be orders of magnitude faster than un- catalyzed reactions. Enzyme Characteristics Due to their complex protein structure, enzymes are typically more specific than chemical catalysts. This high specificity defines a narrow operational range for enzymes, which is defined by parameters like temperature, pH, cofactors, etc. The reaction:...
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Lecture 03 Biochemsitry Some Basics Fall 2009 - Some Basics...

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