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Unformatted text preview: BME 501 Cardiovascular Section Dr. Hsiai Homework 1 Fill in the blank: The individual blood cell types have been labeled. Identify the cell types according to the following questions. 1. Which cell type becomes sickle in some African Americans? Choose one. Erythrocyte 2. Which cell type secretes histamine in response to allergic reactions? Choose one. Basophil 3. Which cell type(s) respond to bacterial infection? Choose three types. Neutrophil, lymphocyte, and basophil. 4. Which cell type is involved in immune reactions in response to organ transplant or prosthetic heart valves? Choose one. Lymphocyte 5. Which cell type(s) respond to secondary hemostasis? (Choose two) Platelet Monocyte 6. Stem cells that differentiate to mesoderm will give rise to hematopoetic progenitor cells. Show the lineage leading to erythrocyte, thrombocytes, and leukocytes. Which granular cell type is most abundant? For this answer, see Dr. Hsiai’s presentation from Chapter 1, slide 23. Most abundant: Neutrophil . PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com BME 501 Cardiovascular Section Dr. Hsiai Homework 1 7. In response to acute infection such as appendicitis, which type of leukocytes will become elevated in systemic circulation? Band neutrophil 8. In response to humoral immunity, plasma cells produce antibodies specific to the pathogens. Explain the concept of memory in antibody production. [Answer provided by Dr. Han] Through antigen presenting cells such as macrophages, specific cell lines of B lymphocytes are selected for clonal expansion. This selectivity is based on the antigen and antibody matching, so that epitopes on the antigen of the presented pathogens match the binding sites of the membrane antibody of the B cells. This way, the clonally expanded B cells and matured plasma cells possess the “cellular memory” of the pathogen, which makes the response to the subsequent exposure to the same pathogen much more efficient. 9. In response to heart transplant, both cellular and humoral immunities develop. Name the types of lymphocytes that are involved. B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes 10. What are the roles of CD 4 and CD8 cells? [Answer provided by Dr. Han.] CD 4 cells are “helper” T cells that regulate clonal expansion of other lymphocytes by secreting various immune mediators such as interleukins. CD8 cells are cytotoxic T cells that execute MHC-1 mediated destruction of intracellularly defective or infected cells. 11. Which type is infected by the retrovirus? CD4 Devices: 12. What are urethane and polyurethane? Why are they the widely used materials for implantation? Urethane is ethyl carbamate. Polyurethanes are polymers of urethane. These materials are valued for their biocompatibility and high elasticity. [Source: Biomaterials by Sujata V. Bhat, 2002, Kluwer] Blood: 13. Red blood cells (RBC) become sickle in patients with sickle cell anemia. What is the half-life of a normal RBC? 60 days. [The full lifespan is 120 days, but not all red blood cells are created at the same time. [The full lifespan is 120 days, but not all red blood cells are created at the same time....
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