Chapter2c - Methodsin SocialPsychology: Chapter2...

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Methods in  Social Psychology: Chapter 2 Emily Grijalva, Psychology 201 August 31st, 2009
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Methods Worksheet Review Theory: an explanation of the underlying causes of something a scientist has observed Example: If something is scarce its perceived value increases. Hypothesis: a specific prediction about what should occur if a theory is valid that provides a means for testing the theory Example: During Christmas time those toys that are difficult to obtain become more popular than similar toys that are abundant.
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Methods Worksheet Review Cont. Operational Definition: a specific, observable response that will be used to measure the concept Example: Put a sign in front of a toy store saying limited quantity of a toy left (dump truck) then place 10 toys on shelf next to very similar toy of which there are many.
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Scarcity Technique Demonstration People were given a chocolate chip cookie and asked to rate it on several scales Cookie taken from jar conataining 10 cookies Cookie taken from jar containing 2 cookies Which cookie is more desirable?
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Overview   Experimental Research  Ethical Issues in Social Psychology
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(Review)Defining Variables    Independent variable (IV) : the cause; the variable that is  changed/ manipulated to see its potential effect on another  variable  Experiments often involve  two (or more)  independent  variables Dependent variable (DV) : the effect; the variable that is  measured  after the manipulation  to see if it has been influenced  by the IV  The researcher hypothesizes that the level of the dependent  variable will  depend  on the level of the independent variable
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Defining Variables     Extraneous variable(s) : everything in the experiment other  than the independent or dependent variables  Potential problems, sources of error that must be  controlled   How to control?    Keep extraneous variables constant across all conditions of  the IV o  The conditions cannot differ on any extraneous  variables; they should only differ on the IV   Difficult in social psychology : How can you construct a  setting where everything is controlled but participants can still 
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Chapter2c - Methodsin SocialPsychology: Chapter2...

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